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A New Era for Whites around the world

2019.12.28 22:29 HitlerinoCappuccino A New Era for Whites around the world

We are a Pan-Caucasian community that prioritizes our identity as White (or Caucasian/Ethnically European), not to be used as political pawns for either left or right in Western ideologies/parties. The central focus is on White Americans and Greater White Diaspora in the west, but we care about issues affecting Whites around the world as well. We are against all forms of anti-White racism. Both group strategies for activism and individual strategies for self improvement are welcome here.
[link]


2014.07.02 02:32 FouRPlaY Bad Rhetoric

A place for citizens of the racoon nation, who scour the trashcans of speech and politics. Looking for weapons of mass destruction. Putting pepper spray on our breakfast, and adopting the forgotten boy scouts. Our homes are filled with plenty of alley cats, and our baskets are deplorable.There may be peace between man and fish, but we are Trash pandas.
[link]


2020.10.25 05:16 GIaciers The Occult - Another Fan-Made Faction

Its been a while since I've tried making anything role-related since I just haven't found the desire to, but I recently found some inspiration and decided to go at it again. The names were a bit of a struggle to come up with, but their effects are something I am confident in.
Criticism is encouraged, it would help balance this role list a lot!
This Role list comes with 19 new Roles, including one for Mafia and Coven, as well as unique Role Lists!
New Roles
Occult Head: The leader of the Occult, who will convert those susceptible to influence.
Mindless: An initiate to the Occult that can become any Occult role except the Head.
Abductor: An evil version of the Jailor that will abduct players through the course of two full nights, including the day!
Manipulator: A nasty individual that can make a townie perform their task or pay the price!
Bloodmancer: An evil version of the original Retributionist that sacrifices themselves to bring someone back as an Occult member!
Seer: An evil version of the Psychic that has defense and can only see non-Occult members in their visions.
Practitioner: An evil version of the Doctor that can Drug townies to lower their strength and defense!
Haulier: An evil version of the Transporter that transports discretely, or makes anyone visiting a person attack them unwillingly.
Interrogator: A mix between an evil Sheriff and Investigator, having the ability to check for a clue to someone's role as well as being able to check their Faction!
Druid: A Town member that prevents attacks and cleanses gasoline, while also poisoning whoever attacks them!
Barbarian: A Town member that will perform a ballistic attack against anyone they visit, and will go down with them.
Detective: A Town member that investigates a crime scene, then goes after potential suspects, attacking the assumed culprit!
Auditor: A Town member that can listen in on the conversation of any Faction they choose, though they must be wary of being caught.
Rogue Occultist: A Neutral Killing that is out for themselves... and only themselves. Nobody can be left alive, not even Survivors.
Bard: A Neutral Benign that will outright prevent people from attacking. They only win with roles that cannot kill!
Kleptomaniac: A Neutral Chaos that steals different night abilities from people during the day. They can only win with Neutral Killing roles!
Effigy: A mysterious role that will Fuse with their first visitor, empowering them in the process.
Voodoo Master: A new Coven role that creates Voodoo dolls of other townies to protect themselves of an attack at the townie's expense.
Lurker: A new Mafia role that acts as an evil Tracker, Blackmailing anyone who visits another Mafia member!
New Role Lists
Blasphemy: A mix between Coven and Occult that pits two smaller versions of their respective factions against each other.
Magic Duel: A majority of the town is the Occult and the Coven, with a small number of Town at the center! Inspired by the Sponserved Role List.
Pop-Goes: Be the one to find the Jester and win with them alive, or face the consequences.
True Anarchy: Much like Anarchy, this is simply All Any for the Occult... but without any Town roles.
Town Traitor (Blasphemy): The same as other Town Traitor modes, but with two Traitors and two Factions!

THE OCCULT

The Occult is a highly dangerous group of some of the most stone-cold, psychotic people you will ever come across. Although they lack a lot of extraordinary abilities like the Coven or a lot of firepower like the Mafia, the Occult excels at manipulation of other people, while still having their methods of killing in sick and sadistic ways. They do not hold themselves back for anyone or anything.

IN-GAME TERM DEFINITIONS

Convert:
The chosen target will be turned into a Mindless if the right option is chosen.
This only works on Town roles and Amnesiacs.

Manipulate:
Your target will either perform the task they were given, or they will be attacked by the person demanding the task.

Drug:
The target who was dealt a drug will have their Strength and Defense lowered by one tier each, excluding those with Unstoppable Strength or Invincible Defense.

Fuse:
The player will become a part of the first person who visits them, inheriting their Goal and the ability to speak with them directly.

Blasphemy:
The role list that combines both Coven and Occult expansions. It gets its name from the sheer amount of roles that would be in the game with the two combined.

OCCULT WIN CONDITIONS

You Win With:
- Survivors
- Executioners
- Pestilence
- Pirates
- Guardian Angels [You can also convert them before their target dies, though this will not be listed.]
You Must Kill:
- Town
- Mafia
- Coven
- Jesters [You can lynch them.]
- Witches
- Serial Killers
- Werewolves
- Arsonists
- Juggernauts
- Rogue Occultists
- Bards
- Amnesiacs [You can also convert them.]
- Vampires
- Plaguebearer [They must be Pestilence for you to be able to side with them. Give them time.]
- Kleptomaniacs

OCCULT: FACTION ROLES
Unique roles will have an Asterisk next to their name.

Role #1:
Occult Head*

Strength: None
Defense: Powerful

Alignment
Occult (Deception)

Goal
Eliminate anyone who rebels against the way of the Occult, and seek out Pestilence.

Abilities
- Choose one target each day to attempt to Convert to the Occult with one of five methods.

Attributes
- You will know if your conversion fails, and so will the person who was targeted.
- If you Convert them successfully, they will become a Mindless.
- You may only Convert any Town roles or Amnesiacs. If you attempt to Convert someone else, it will always fail.
- You are immune to Pestilence's attacks.

Role #2:
Mindless

Strength: None
Defense: None

Alignment
Occult (Benign)

Goal
Eliminate anyone who rebels against the way of the Occult, and seek out Pestilence.

Abilities
- At night, choose an Occult role to become.

Attributes:
- If you do not choose an Occult role, you will be granted a random one.
- If there are no kill-capable Occult members left you will become the Occult Head.
- You are immune to Pestilence's attacks.

Role #3:
Abductor*

Strength: Unstoppable
Defense: None

Alignment
Occult (Killing)

Goal
Eliminate anyone who rebels against the way of the Occult, and seek out Pestilence.

Abilities
- Choose one target at night to kidnap.
- The following night, you will kill the kidnapped player. Being killed or role blocked will prevent your target from dying.

Attributes:
- You can only kidnap 2 targets per game, and must wait a day after killing a kidnapped target.
- The kidnapped player will not appear the next day, but will not be dead.
- If you kidnap Pestilence, you will free them immediately and know their role.
- If there are no kill-capable Occult members left you will become the Occult Head.
- You are immune to Pestilence's attacks.
[Abductor priority will be lower than the Jailor. If you are jailed, your kidnapping will be prevented.]

Role #4:
Manipulator

Strength: Basic
Defense: Basic

Alignment
Occult (Support)

Goal
Eliminate anyone who rebels against the way of the Occult, and seek out Pestilence.

Abilities
- Choose one target during the day to Manipulate.
- The chosen target will be given the option to comply to your demands or be killed.

Attributes
- If your target is a multi-target role, they can still select their second target freely.
- If your target is a non-visiting role, they will be Blackmailed.
- If your target survives the attack, they will be Blackmailed.
- If there are no kill-capable Occult members left you will become the Occult Head.
- You are immune to being role blocked.
- You are immune to Pestilence's attacks.

Role #5:
Bloodmancer*

Strength: None
Defense: Basic

Alignment
Occult (Support)

Goal
Eliminate anyone who rebels against the way of the Occult, and seek out Pestilence.

Abilities
- Revive one dead town member as an Occult member.

Attributes
- Reviving a town member takes two days.
- Once the town member has been revived, you will die as a sacrifice.
- The revived town member will be an Occult member regardless of their role, and will only live for two days.
- If there are no kill-capable Occult members left you will become the Occult Head.
- You are immune to Pestilence's attacks.

Role #6:
Seer

Strength: None
Defense: Basic

Alignment
Occult (Investigative)

Goal
Eliminate anyone who rebels against the way of the Occult, and seek out Pestilence.

Abilities
- Receive a vision every night.

Attributes
- On odd nights you will have a vision of three players, at least one will be Evil.
- On even nights you will have a vision of two players, at least one will be Good.
- You will not receive other Occult members in your visions.
- If there are no kill-capable Occult members left you will become the Occult Head.
- You are immune to Pestilence's attacks.

Role #7:
Practitioner

Strength: None
Defense: Basic

Alignment
Occult (Protective)

Goal
Eliminate anyone who rebels against the way of the Occult, and seek out Pestilence.

Abilities:
- Heal one person each night, granting them Powerful defense.
- Drug one person each day, lowering their Strength and Defense value by one tier.

Attributes:
- You can only Heal people on even nights.
- You can only Drug people on odd nights.
- Your Drugging target will know you are the one who did so.
- If there are no kill-capable Occult members left you will become the Occult Head.
- You are immune to Pestilence's attacks.

Role #8:
Haulier*

Strength: Basic
Defense: Basic

Alignment
Occult (Chaos)

Goal
Eliminate anyone who rebels against the way of the Occult, and seek out Pestilence.

Abilities:
- Choose two people to transport at night.
- Choose one person each day to grant a Basic attack to whoever they visit.

Attributes:
- If you perform your day ability, you cannot perform your night ability, and vice versa.
- Transporting two people swaps all targets against them.
- Your targets will NOT know they were transported.
- If you choose to make your target attack the person they visited, they will know they did so.
- If there are no kill-capable Occult members left you will become the Occult Head.
- You are immune to Pestilence's attacks.

Role #9:
Interrogator

Strength: None
Defense: None

Alignment
Occult (Investigative)

Goal
Eliminate anyone who rebels against the way of the Occult, and seek out Pestilence.

Abilities:
- Investigate one person each day for a clue to their role.
- Investigate one person each night for their exact Alignment.

Attributes:
- You cannot check a person's Alignment after having checked their role, and vice versa.
- You can instead choose to Frame your day target as a Serial Killer for the night.
- If there are no kill-capable Occult members left you will become the Occult Head.
- You are immune to Pestilence's attacks.

OCCULT: NON-FACTION ROLES
Unique roles will have an Asterisk next to their name.

Role #1:
Druid

Strength: Powerful
Defense: None

Alignment
Town (Protective)

Goal
Lynch every criminal and evildoer.

Abilities:
- You may choose one target to cleanse them of gasoline and prevent an attack.

Attributes:
- If you are attacked, you will Poison your target.
- You cannot be infected with the Plague.

Role #2:
Barbarian*

Strength: Powerful
Defense: None

Alignment
Town (Killing)

Goal
Lynch every criminal and evildoer.

Abilities:
- Choose one target to perform an all-out attack on, killing all visitors to that target.

Attributes:
- You cannot attack until Night 4 or later.
- Once you attack someone, you will die along with the target and any visitors.
- You cannot be Healed on Night 4 or later.

Role #3:
Detective

Strength: Basic
Defense: None

Alignment
Town (Investigative)

Goal
Lynch every criminal and evildoer.

Abilities:
- Select one dead target to discover who visited them the night of their murder.
- After seeing visitors to your target, select a target to determine if they are the killer.

Attributes:
- You must choose a visitor to your first target after investigating the murder.
- You will not know if the chosen target was Framed or not.
- If you found the presumed killer, you will attack them. If you are wrong, you will become a Sheriff.

Role #4:
Auditor*

Strength: None
Defense: None

Alignment
Town (Support)

Goal
Lynch every criminal and evildoer.

Abilities:
- During the day, choose what Faction to listen in on during the night.
- During the night, listen to the chat of the Faction selected.

Attributes:
- If you choose the same Faction twice in a row, they will know you are listening.

Role #5:
Rogue Occultist*

Strength: Basic
Defense: None

Alignment
Neutral (Killing)

Goal
Eliminate everyone. [This includes Survivors.]

Abilities:
- You may choose to silence a player mid-day, suppressing their ability to speak or vote.
- During the night, attack anyone who visits your target's home.

Attributes:
- You must wait two days to silence someone mid-day again.
- You will not attack your target if they visit someone else. If they visit you, you will attack them with Basic defense instead.
- If three or more people visit your target's home, you will not attack anyone.

Role #6:
Bard*

Strength: None
Defense: None

Alignment
Neutral (Benign)

Goal
Live until the end of the game while pacifying all Killing roles. [ANY Killing role counts, and all Coven count. Vigilantes with no Bullets, Veterans with no Alerts and Jailors with no Executes count as pacified.]

Abilities:
- Choose a target at night to prevent them from attacking someone.

Attributes:
- You cannot attack anyone regardless of circumstance.
- You are immune to being role blocked.

Role #7:
Kleptomaniac

Strength: None
Defense: Basic

Alignment
Neutral (Chaos)

Goal
Live to see Town in shambles. [This just means a Neutral Killing winning.]

Abilities:
- Choose a target during the day to steal an ability from.
- You may use your target's ability during the night.

Attributes:
- You cannot steal day abilities or abilities that result in Powerful strength or defense or higher.
- You will inherit any downsides of your target's ability.

Role #8:
Effigy*

Strength: Unstoppable
Defense: ???

Alignment
Neutral (???)

Goal
Find a suitable host. [You gain their Goal.]

Abilities:
- Fuse with the first person who visits you.
- At any point, you may un-fuse with the person who you Fused with.
- The person you Fused with will gain Basic defense.

Attributes:
- You will join the Faction of the person you Fused with.
- If you un-fuse, the person you originally Fused with will know your name.
- You can speak with the person you Fused with.

Role #9:
Voodoo Master*

Strength: None
Defense: None

Alignment
Coven (Evil) [Or Coven (Deception) if Coven roles are updated with unique tags.]

Goal
Kill all who would oppose the Coven.

Abilities:
- Craft a Voodoo doll of your target over two nights.

Attributes:
- The Voodoo doll will make your target get attacked instead of you.
- The doll lasts for one attack.
- If the Coven Leader is killed, you will become the Coven Leader.
- With the Necronomicon, your Voodoo doll will also Poison anyone who attacks you.

Role #10:
Lurker

Strength: None
Defense: None

Alignment
Mafia (Investigative)

Goal
Kill anyone who will not submit to the Mafia.

Abilities:
- Track one person at night to see who they visit.

Attributes:
- If your target visits a Mafia member while you watch them, they will be Blackmailed.
- If there are no kill-capable Mafia roles left you will become a Mafioso.
- You can talk with the other Mafia at night.

UPDATED ROLES

Pestilence

New Goal:
Kill all who would oppose you, and/or find the Occult.

New Attribute:
- If you find an Occult member, you will know they are an Occult member.

Executioner

New Win Condition:
Executioner can have their target be the Rogue Occultist, as they are an enemy to the Executioner.

Amnesiac

New Attribute:
- If you attempt to remember an Occult role, you will become a Mindless.

UPDATED INVESTIGATIVE RESULTS

Occult Investigator Results:
Vigilante, Veteran, Mafioso, Ambusher, Barbarian, or Abductor.
Medium, Janitor, Retributionist, or Occult Head.
Survivor, Vampire Hunter, or Amnesiac. [Seer is exclusive to Coven, due to Psychic.]
Spy, Blackmailer, Jailor, or Bard.
Sheriff, Executioner, Werewolf, or Druid.
Framer, Vampire, Jester, Manipulator.
Lookout, Forger, Witch, Bloodmancer, or Auditor.
Escort, Transporter, Consort, Hypnotist, Interrogator or Haulier.
Doctor, Disguiser, Serial Killer, Practitioner or Lurker.
Investigator, Consigliere, Mayor, or Plaguebearer. [PlaguebearePestilence will come with Occult.]
NEW: Detective, Rogue Occultist, Mindless, or Kleptomaniac.
Effigy has their own unique result: "You tried to investigate your target, but a higher presence prevents you."

Blasphemy Investigator Results:
Vigilante, Veteran, Mafioso, Pirate, Ambusher, Barbarian, or Abductor.
Medium, Janitor, Retributionist, Necromancer, Trapper, or Occult Head.
Survivor, Vampire Hunter, Amnesiac, Medusa, Psychic, or Seer.
Spy, Blackmailer, Jailor, Guardian Angel, or Bard.
Sheriff, Executioner, Werewolf, Poisoner, or Druid.
Framer, Vampire, Jester, Hex Master, or Manipulator.
Lookout, Forger, Juggernaut, Coven Leader, Bloodmancer, or Auditor.
Escort, Transporter, Consort, Hypnotist, Interrogator, or Haulier.
Doctor, Disguiser, Serial Killer, Potion Master, Practitioner, or Lurker.
Investigator, Consigliere, Mayor, Tracker, or Plaguebearer.
NEW: Detective, Rogue Occultist, Mindless, Voodoo Master, or Kleptomaniac.
Effigy has their own unique result: "You tried to investigate your target, but a higher presence prevents you."

Consigliere / Witch / Coven Leader Results:
Occult Head: Your target converts people to the Occult. They must be the Occult Head!
Mindless: Your target was just recently converted. They must be a Mindless.
Abductor: Your target holds people hostage at night. They must be an Abductor.
Manipulator: Your target threatens people to do what they want. They must be a Manipulator.
Bloodmancer: Your target revives people for the Occult. They must be the Bloodmancer!
Seer: Your target has warped sights. They must be a Seer.
Practitioner: Your target is a master of many medicines. They must be the Practitioner.
Haulier: Your target silently moves people around at night. They must be the Haulier.
Interrogator: Your target is always looking for clues for the Occult. They must be an Interrogator.
Druid: Your target works wonders with the powers of nature. They must be a Druid.
Barbarian: Your target has a collection of firearms in wait. They must be the Barbarian!
Detective: Your target looks for clues in the night to solve any murders. They must be a Detective.
Auditor: Your target listens in on different factions each night. They must be an Auditor.
Rogue Occultist: Your target thirsts for the blood of everyone in the town. They must be a Rogue Occultist.
Bard: Your target just wants a peaceful town. They must be a Bard.
Kleptomaniac: Your target loves petty theft. They must be a Kleptomaniac.
Effigy: Your target reeks of a higher presence.
Voodoo Master: Your target protects themselves at the cost of others. They must be a Voodoo Master.
Lurker: Your target is a corrupt master in the art of tracking. They must be a Lurker.

Interrogator Faction Results:
Town: Your target is sickeningly civil. They must be a Town member.
Mafia: Your target performs underground operations. They must be a Mafia member.
Coven: Your target feigns superiority in magic. They must be a Coven member.
Occult: Your target is superior to any other faction. They must be another Occult member.
Neutral: Your target has no faction. They must be Neutral.
Rogue Occultist: Your target used to be an Occult member, but has since betrayed you. They must be the Rogue Occultist!

OCCULT ROLE LISTS

Classic (Occult)
Detective
Lookout
Auditor
Jailor
Druid
Escort
Retributionist
Town Killing
Random Town
Occult Head
Haulier
Interrogator
Rogue Occultist
Executioner
Jester

Classic (Blasphemy)
Detective
Tracker
Auditor
Jailor
Crusader
Medium
Barbarian
Town Killing
Random Town
Occult Head
Haulier
Coven Leader
Hex Master
Executioner
Jester

Ranked (Occult)
Jailor
Town Investigative
Town Protective
Town Killing
Town Support
Town Support
Random Town
Random Town
Random Town
Occult Head
Random Occult
Random Occult
Neutral Evil
Neutral Killing
Any

Ranked (Blasphemy)
Jailor
Town Investigative
Town Protective
Town Killing
Town Killing
Town Support
Random Town
Random Town
Random Town
Occult Head
Random Occult
Random Occult
Coven Leader
Random Coven
Random Coven

Magic Duel (Blasphemy)
Occult Head
Abductor
Random Occult
Random Occult
Coven Leader
Medusa
Random Coven
Random Coven
Random Town
Random Town
Random Town
Random Town
Random Town
Neutral Evil
Neutral Evil

Pop-Goes (Occult)
Jester
Occult Head
Random Occult
Random Occult
Random Occult
Jailor
Random Town
Random Town
Random Town
Godfather
Random Mafia
Random Mafia
Random Mafia
Neutral Killing
Neutral Killing
Extra Conditions:
Both Neutral Killings are the same role and know each other immediately.
The last party standing alongside the Jester wins. If the Jester is lynched, everyone but the Jester loses.

Pop-Goes (Blasphemy)
Jester
Occult Head
Random Occult
Random Occult
Jailor
Random Town
Random Town
Coven Leader
Random Coven
Random Coven
Godfather
Random Mafia
Random Mafia
Neutral Killing
Neutral Killing
Extra Conditions:
Both Neutral Killings are the same role and know each other immediately.
The last party standing alongside the Jester wins. If the Jester is lynched, everyone but the Jester loses.

Anarchy (Occult)
All Any with Occult roles.

Anarchy (Blasphemy)
Coven All Any with Occult roles.

True Anarchy (Occult)
All Any, but all Town roles are disabled.

True Anarchy (Blasphemy)
Coven All Any, but all Town roles are disabled.

Town Traitor (Occult)
Jailor
Lookout
Detective
Druid
Town Investigative
Town Protective
Town Killing
Random Town
Random Town
Random Town
Occult Head
Interrogator
Random Occult
Random Occult
Jester
Extra Conditions:
One Town member will be a Town Traitor for the Occult.

Town Traitor (Blasphemy)
Jailor
Tracker
Detective
Druid
Crusader
Town Investigative
Town Protective
Town Killing
Random Town
Random Town
Random Town
Occult Head
Random Occult
Coven Leader
Random Coven
Extra Conditions:
Two Town members will be Town Traitors, one for each faction. Town must find both Traitors before it's too late, but the Occult and Coven must also make sure they're careful, too!
submitted by GIaciers to TownofSalemgame [link] [comments]


2020.10.25 04:41 cschuftan YES, I WRITE THE READERS WITH A LOT OF ANGER (CREATIVE ANGER) AND I DO NOT HIDE IT. I SAY THIS NOT WITH RESENTMENT, BUT WITH DETERMINATION.

Human rights: Food for a confessional thought ‘My Readers’
Human Rights Reader 550
[Every 50 Readers I write one that pertains to the process and thoughts that lead to each Reader coming to you; this also reflects about the process of writing-for-action and for-impact in general]
[TLDR (too long didn’t read): This Reader is about the process leading to the birth of each Reader as I keep the implications for human rights center stage. For a quick overview, just read the bolded text].
-The needed creative anger to address so many of the injustices at hand can only be mustered within the framework of an ideology consciously acquired.
-I am not 75 years old; I am sweet 16 with 59 years of experience… Yes, I may perhaps be in the golden age, but at my 75 years of age, I refuse to retire my rebelliousness, civil defiance and non-compliance. (Edmundo Moure) (…and keep in mind: We all become old at the same speed…) (Leonardo Padura)
The most influential writers are those who create moral and political clarity
-Let me start and set the stage for this Reader with a couple borrowed paragraphs to say that I identify with George Packer (the award-winning journalist https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Packer ) who reflects on himself and his writing as follows:
  1. I have been called a coffee-house pamphleteer,* a ready duelist, an unreasonable fighter for reason. The work I do only gets done in comfortless isolation, face-to-face with myself, but still with a sense of connection with other people since I strive to identify with a community and to write as its representative. When I click on an article, the first thing I want to know is which group the writer belongs to. (I assume this is your case as well). The group may be a political faction, an ethnicity or (in my case, a human rights activism) group. Once I know, this makes my writing a lot simpler. It tells me what you expect from my work, and even what you will probably think of it. Addressing a specific audience saves me a lot of trouble when doing my thinking.
*: This prompts me to ask: Am I an activist or an activist-scholar? …or neither and just a pamphleteer? To this effect, I can say: Trying not to be pamphletary, my Readers voice strong opinions and points of view. Perhaps what happens is that I am influenced by the maxim: “write pamphlets, not papers”. I am the first to recognize that: As far as I know, I have been a poor mobilizer beyond innumerable calls to action. My writings do not systematically elaborate on theories, but rather do produce pamphlet-like calls to action whose provocative theses are meant to bring about needed change. But do they? Be it as it may, I must consider the possibility I am part of the problem! (Dinah Miller)
  1. For the Readers, I feel I need to find the right language that will cross the unfathomable gap separating us from one another. But the cultivation of followers cannot become an end in itself! If I have not got a community behind me, vouching for me, cheering me on, together with me mobbing our adversaries and slaying them, then who am I as a writer? I would risk being ignored. This is why I keep the sentences pushing the boundaries of free, committed expression just a few millimeters further out at a time. If, as a writer, I am afraid of the sound of my own voice, then honest, clear, original work is not going to flourish.
  2. A writer can still write while hiding from the ‘thought police’. But a writer who carries the thought police around in his head, who always feels compelled to ask: Can I say this? Do I have a right? Is my terminology correct? Will my allies get angry? Will it help my enemies? Could it get me rated on Twitter? --that writer’s words will soon become lifeless. A committed writer who is afraid to tell people what they do not want to hear has chosen the wrong trade. He has to write from a position of moral certainty; to stand alone if need be; to tell the truth. Yes, the most influential writers are those who create moral and political clarity. Their light is meant to overpower subjects, not just shed some light on them. The glare is to be so strong that readers stop seeing the writer’s little flaws and contradictions. Good writing, as much as ever, if not more, is essential to democracy [and in my case to human rights (HR)] --and one dies with the other. I know that many readers hunger for good writing, even if they often, afterwards, stay more quiet than what the writer (I) would want them to be.
  3. A couple upfront confessions
· I am driven by the voracious desire of knowing it all, of being in the midst of all, of discovering the whys and the hows of everything HR-related.
· I am a discrete active plagiarist which is licit since there is no Adam and Eve in the history of what is written. What happens is one has to know how to plagiarize, otherwise it is better to have the terrible irresponsibility of being original. (Jorge Luis Borges)
· I have always been one of my toughest critics. I know that I have not pulled it off, that something is lacking, both on the Readers and in my own professional life. (Peter Hoeg) [This is not so much a compliment, but a statement of fact].
· I do not look for themes and issues; they jump at me and I receive them as a slap on the face. (Louis Casado), and
· As a rule, I do not read my old stuff for inspiration.
I write about the world, but not with the world
-The challenge I take-on is to exercises without inhibitions the complex trade of thinking.
  1. There are few public intellectuals left. The problem is that our shifty, chaotic day-to-day praxis purportedly makes time for theorizing scarce. Is the time of avant-garde intellectuals over? No. Intellectuals must see themselves as rearguard intellectuals, must heed the needs and aspirations of ordinary citizens and find out how to use that as a foundation for their writing. Otherwise, citizens will be defenseless before those who deviously purport to speak their language and understand their deep concerns and ultimately‘move-in’ on them. (In many countries these would be, though not only, the conservative evangelical pastors or the radical Muslim imams, who ultimately stand for capitalist and for patriarchal domination). (Boaventura de Sousa Santos)
  2. As for me, I am more and more lured by the prospect of using my energies to foster a peaceful social revolution since those frustrated (like I myself am) cannot simply remain inactive and silent. The strife will come despite us and our (futile?) efforts as intellectual activists. It is just a matter of time… and many among us may be actually delaying it with a ‘do-gooder’ attitude. What is under judgment of the Readers today is my using my 45 years of professional life to change any ruling exploitative, oppressive and alienating international and national political system.**
**: Do we simply not do what we preach, collectively and/or individually? Have any of us sparked any new activism commensurate with the task and challenges at hand? Have we created conceptual frameworks only to ignore acting more decisively and dedicatedly on the basic causes of HR violations? If so, this is equivalent to intellectual double standards …and I am as guilty as anybody. (Michel Latham)
  1. So many of our academics and intellectuals ought to find more popular writing outlets such as blogs and other such mass consumption publications (podcasts?) that allow them to reach out with their prose craft. Especially social sciences academics must not consider those outlets at odds with scholarly pursuits. (Douglas Hunter)
I never saw a (crooked) bridge I didn't want to burn (John Kiriakou)
-Gabriel Garcia Marquez famously said he tries to explain things in his calculated, explicative way so that it leaves as little room as possible for questions, because he hopes to leave every question of his readers responded beforehand. I cannot claim this for my Readers.
  1. I prefer and seek to know and tell the truth. For that, call me ‘negative’, if you want, and avoid what I write and share just as much as you like. Positive accounts mostly make you feel better while you are safe and content --in a fake reality though. Moreover, it is not about the specific points I make, it is all about how I try to position them in the Readers. (David Hoffeld)
  2. It is actually partly as a reaction to what I see and partly as a personal challenge that I sit down to write the Readers. I know that part or all of my analyses and conclusions may be taken just as an intellectualization, that everything sounds easier on paper (or the screen) than in reality. Not being realistic is a judgment that history can change! What may be unrealistic today can very well become true tomorrow --if we work for it, with decision. I hope I succeed in stressing to you perhaps a different angle of the problems we all face --and perhaps make you share some of my concerns and a little bit of my aggressiveness.
  3. I strongly feel our own society has lost any sense that we are fighting for anything except to patch-up the same kind of world that has produced the chaos we are-in now.*** Many of us have come to this understanding grudgingly. The Readers, therefore, keep pounding this.
***: Making nice diagrams and building impressive econometric models of the kind development economists so much enjoy is no longer cutting it (did it ever?).
Some of the technicalities
-In the Readers, I do not pretend to be adding much new information, but rather more often attempt to systematize what is being said by others.
  1. I clip materials that go into the Readers, of which there is a trove, from everywhere, both from fiction and non-fiction. It often ends up being too much to sort and to fit into the non-systematic classification categories I use. (Some of this material I fit into my iron laws). I choose to share this material with you for you, at your discretion, for you to use it in your work. So, be prepared for this true brain storm to continue coming. Ultimately, the Readers aim to liberate you and me from the power of myths.
  2. The Readers talk about many of the things the materials I constantly review bring up; I just try to put them in simpler words. (The materials I select actually seek the answers to the things that bother me). There are times I find a line or two that make a dozen things I had half-known more definite and clear for me --and I pass that-on to you. Often, such sentences first make me restless; I put them down just as separate thoughts that help me get them out of my mind until I can use them in the right place. This then adds to the list of things that I get to know better and better about --believe-in and thus share.
  3. In the Readers, I also try to use a sense of timing that can be made compelling to you readers. Because words have consequences****, I do not want you to just finish reading and be done with. There should be a mild surprise --and perhaps a worry-- left in your mind. (…Or perhaps a bit of healthy guilt?). (John Bayley)
****: Some reflections on these consequences: a) Words fly, what is written stays. (Titus Flavius Vespasianus to the Roman senate), b) All that is ever been done in the world, both good and bad, has been done through words, c) Words are packages that have multiple meanings, and, careful!, some words speak for us in unexpected ways when we are distracted. (Jorge Majfud), and d) Here is where I learned a lot about how to express a thought in words (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Kraus_(writer).
  1. Let me explain to you that turning to the politico-journalistic genre called ‘miscellanea’, as used by many good writers, allows me to use the apparently disjointed approach to HR you find in the Readers --that deliberately avoids any attempt to systematize issues on HR and tries to instill a dose of skepticism, humor, passion and pain. And so I have done for now over 12 years uninterruptedly sharing with you my most obsessive themes. (Albino Gomez) My prose remains a prose of ideas, but also a prose of combat.
  2. Finally here, I have an impressionist’s eye and another utterly realistic eye. With one, I see general strokes, wrinkled surfaces. With the other, I distinguish figures and clearly defined edges. When I focus from nearby, the attributes of what I see interchange. Then, with the first eye, I see perfectly formed shapes, while with the other, I see a world of clouds and fog. One eye helps me write the Readers, the other to drive my motorbike. (Daniel Pizarro)
Since it is always good to close with some openings for the future…
-If the Readers are meant to be empowering: where am I to direct my energies? To peers? To the general public? To duty bearers? To claim holders? Are the Readers the wrong forum to help anybody to become empowered? Are the Readers just periodic critical writings that transcend the respective occasion? (Robert Alter) These are questions I ask myself a hundred times over.
  1. Make no mistake, these seemingly abstract issues that I write about are matters determining the lives of millions of people. (H. F. Johnson, ex Minister of international development of Norway) But things that I think I have, over-and-over, proven to be right in the 45 years span of my experience in development work, have, one time too many, fallen on deaf ears. Do you share this feeling? Not being facetious, has not much of what many of you and I have tirelessly done been (almost) as useless as rearranging the furniture on the deck of the Titanic? (Think HR…). (R. Ricupero) I have to confess, it has not been only like hammering on closed doors, but on closed minds. (Susan George)
  2. Having been a full-time consultant for many years now has left me islands of time where I start ruminating and revising old notes. (Is this what they call falling back on experience?) Over the years, I have had a bias against writing books. Doing so makes you go to a miserable time. You have to fight with reviewers and editors and with numerous rewrites, and then, books are forgotten in some shelf or to-read-pile –or, worse, you have to work on a new edition… I am convinced of the power of short weekly or fortnightly pieces, especially if they chain and lock together as the Readers try to do. So, I will continue in that vein. Some people may hate them, but they are the fewer …and you always have the option to unsubscribe. I strongly feel that my story should continue to be narrated in a way that is compelling and thus attractive for you to accept. Only this will make the Readers living documents.
  3. Many years ago, in my youth, I saw things as being easier. I do not know if it was because I was younger and I thought we were going to conquer the world, or I was simply immature, or because the world has really changed so much in these last decades. But, in any case, do not despair. Of course(!), the problems of the world must be fixable. If not, why continue living? I mean we have to live our lives --yours as much as mine-- embracing the idea that the problems are fixable. We cannot look at life any other way. If there is something we came to this world to do before we leave is planting a small seed to do something better. (Marcelo Colusi) So, I commit to do my part.
  4. There is so much distance between what I have wanted to say and what I have succeeded in saying over the years that, after it has been published, I sometimes get a cold sweat when I reread my own Readers. But if I would not write/have written them, I would show a lack of courage --and that, perhaps, some of my readers would not like. (Juan Gelman) As George Soros said, I am proud of the enemies I may have.
Claudio Schuftan, Ho Chi Minh City
Your comments are welcome at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
All Readers are available at www.claudioschuftan.com
Postscript/Marginalia
-Every writer is dead with his latest writing, because he gave all his blood, all his life into it and he must be born again. (Jerzy Kosinski …being gender insensitive)
-If a cluttered desk is a sign of a cluttered mind, what is an empty desk a sign of? (Albert Einstein)
-Many of you are probably familiar with the term “armchair activist”. This label describes someone who takes strong stands on the internet or social media, but rarely does anything more, especially if it involves leaving the comfort of their home. When this activism has no connection to the actions we need to take in the real world, it does not do much more than help us pretend we are part of the solution --mea culpa? However, in recent years we have witnessed the power of the internet and social media to unite all kinds of people in the fight for all sort of HR issues. Advocacy online through blogs, podcasts, postings (and Readers…) can inspire people to get out of their apathy and into the struggle. The ability of social media to allow us to speak up for justice and HR makes it a great organizing tool. The necessary thing to remember about this, though, is that activism does not end when you log off. (Hesperian)
Acknowledgements: I am indebted here to my intellectual mentors Luis Weinstein (who initiated me in the art of clipping) and Urban Jonsson (who stung me with the inquisitiveness for HR).
submitted by cschuftan to HumanRightsDiscourse [link] [comments]


2020.10.25 02:37 500scnds [Table] I'm Jeff Galak, Professor of Marketing & Social and Decision Science at Carnegie Mellon University. I have published dozens of academic papers on decision making, consumer behavior, and more. I have also recently launched a new YouTube channel called Data Demystified. AMA! (pt 2/3)

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Questions Answers
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Hi Jeff, thanks for doing this AMA! 1. As you said, studies have shown that relationships show the strongest correlation to happiness. Do you think people can be happy from “one” good relationship, maybe one with a loved one - or do we need multiple relationships to be happy? Or does this depend on the person? Yes. The evidence is clear here. Few amazing relationship are far more beneficial than many shallow ones.
2. I’m a lawyer - how do you think data can benefit the legal profession, and how can it benefit me (as an individual)? An understanding of statistics and probability has a huge role in the legal profession. I don't know what type of law you practice, but plenty of civil litigation between firms relies on data to support expert testimony. Lawyers, juries and judges largely lack the intuition and knowledge they need to interpret results of such expert testimony. You personally...think of every time you ever see a data point (political polls, stock prices, product prices/attributes, weather forecasts, etc...). Those all have some form of data and/or statistics in them whether you realize or not. Understanding data very broadly would help you engage with all of that more richly.
3. What’s the one thing we should consider when making decisions, that we don’t consider too much? Most decisions don't matter all that much. We spend a lot of time worrying about mundane decisions and shouldn't!
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Haha I love the answer to Q3. :) It’s honestly refreshing to know that, thank you. Are there any decisions that do matter? Thanks! And, of course. Who you date/marry matters a LOT. Where you live matters a lot. Whether to have children or not matters a lot. I think you get the idea. What doesn't matter is which smartphone you buy, whether you get Italian or Chinese for dinner, or whether you watch this terrible Netflix movie or that one :)
Might be a little late but worth a try. Someone asked about loot boxes in video games, I'm fascinated by the psychology and marketing ploys that manages to constantly get people to buy the product despite the lack of positive reinforcement in the end result (as you know the items that are mostly desired tend to have a 1% or less chance). Right now a game I frequent has discovered through their research that losing increases more playing. They've used this information to artificially alter a player's matches to increase the likelihood of defeat. Despite the amount of frustration this causes a player, when presented with this information and proof (the official patent practically verbatim says this in the abstract itself), it doesn't seem to change their desire to play. Are habitual behaviors that much stronger than removing frustration? This is not something like having a messy room where the mess may not bother the self, thus the cleaning doesn't really remove any undesired feelings. My real question though is what are some concepts, theories, etc. that are employed by this gaming companies to play on the psychology of their players especially with monetization? I know of concepts like anchoring, conditioning, sunk cost fallacy, loss aversion to name a few but have no idea where I could find more. Another thing that's pretty fascinating, games these days are designed where at least 5 years worth of basic content is stripped from the base game and drip fed for years to come at a price. Even with evidence from predecessor games that had these features in their base game, players rejoice at a company releasing it two years later in the new game for a price. That's fascinating! The idea of forcing a loss is really intersting. Would you mind posting which game that is and where the patent filing is? I'm quite curious. The idea does make sense though...if the game can get people hooked on the mechanics and winning is the ultimate goal, then by increasing the odds of losing, they keep you hooked for longer. As in, if you win, you're done and more on to something else. But if you keep loosing, there's reason to stick around.
And I think you've covered the bulk of the "tricks" they use. The biggest one, by far, is the constant reinforcement in the form of points, awards, achievements, etc... all that have no real value. People like getting positive reinforcement and it motivates them to stick around. Imagine the alternative: a game where you never get feedback on your progress...that's a hard game to stay engaged with.
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Hello sir. Hope you and your family is doing well in this pandemic. (1) I have a couple of questions. How does it feel to be a long term professor at a prestigious institution as Carnegie Mellon? How do you think this has prepared you for being an optimal source of knowledge in your field? Thanks for your questions!
Like with any job, there are ups and downs. I LOVE academia. I have the freedom to ask questions of the world that interest me and the tools and resources to answer those questions. That's truly amazing. CMU has provided many opportunities in the form of research support and access to resources. I also have amazing colleagues in the Center for Behavioral and Decision Research who motivate me to do great work. But like anything, there are cons. There is a lot of politics within academia and I can't stand any of it. It's impossible to avoid and makes some days unenjoyable. On the whole, I love my job.
(2) According to you how would companies which are currently surviving this crisis be able to focus on making a sustainable income as well as providing it's workers a pension to work? A purely subjective opinion. Wow, that's a big question and the answer greatly depends on the company. If you're Apple, I'm sure the employees will be fine. If you're a small business like a restaurant, that's a whole other issue. I hope that governments around the world will provide aid to businesses that are struggling, but with the current administration in the US, I'm skeptical much will happen.
(3) How would this crisis as whole impact students from around the globe i.e. Students(domestic and international) who are both in the process of applying as well as those who are going to apply in the next year or two?
(4) What according to you is the key to happiness and Do you consider gift-giving for moral relief(giving gifts to atone for guilt) as not counting as much as giving for the sake of giving? Thank you so much. Have a great day!! All research points to relationships being the key to happiness. Strong and close relationships are the number one predictor of overall happiness and well being. Cultivate them.
Gift giving has MANY motives. Sometimes it's just to make someone else happy, sometimes it's to fulfill an obligation. Sometimes it's to make yourself feel good about yourself. Those motives influence the types of gifts you give and the utility they provide the recipient (and giver). They are all, however, gifts.
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Well...I agree with you there! A gift is a gift! No matter the cause of giving. I couldn't help but notice that you didn't answer the third question(probably because of my awful formatting). As a future applicant I'd really appreciate it. Thank you! Sorry, let me try again. When you say "not counting as much" that can be from the giver's or recipients' perspective. For the giver, if they internalize the gift as some kind of penance for a bad act, then sure, it counts. For the recipient, they probably have no idea what drives the giver and as long as the gift is minimally acceptable, they will be happy with it. Does that help?
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Sorry I meant the third question. Autocorrect 😅. THIRD. My apologies Sorry, totally missed that one somehow! For ugrad and MBA int'l students (I'm at the business school) the biggest hurdle will be visas for entry to the US. I have absolutely no idea how that will play out. The current administration is making it very difficult for int'l students to get entry visas, so unless they change their policies (or are voted out in Nov), that's going to be a real challenge. For domestic students, if anything, they'll have an easier time getting into programs because of the decrease in int'l applicants (less competition).
For PhD students, there is a different and bigger problem: what happens when they graduate. Right now, many (most) universities have hiring freezes. That means that the students who are graduating now are completely screwed. But that also means that next year (assuming the pandemic is gone and schools are hiring again), there will be double competition for academic jobs (those who are graduating on time and those who couldn't get a job this year b/c no one is hiring). That will then cascade into the next year. I suspect it'll take 5 or so years before the academic job market will be back to some sense of normal
[deleted] Oh god, if you want to have impact, DO NOT go into academia. Go be a social worker. Or a teacher. Or work for a non-profit. Academics, with very few exceptions, actually change the world in any way. Most just sit in their offices thinking highly of themselves. The way to actually have impact is to apply your research somehow. That could be consulting, educating others, or writing for a wide audience (i.e. not academic journals).
More generally, you are right to be worried. The academic job market is going to be a disaster for the next few years. There is almost nothing to be done about that. Even the start PhD students are going to struggle. It sucks.
So what can you do? If you really want to do research (which, to be clear, is awesome and can be really rewarding), look for companies like Google that have "People analytics" (that's their version of HR) and do research internally. Or find a boutique consulting firm that focuses on behavioral science (BEESY is one, Ipsos has a Behavioral Science dept, etc...)
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Hi Jeff! I’ve always been interested in data analysis as a career but always feel lost whenever trying to path out an appropriate direction to become something like a data scientist or a researcher. I have 2 questions around data that I was hoping you could provide some insight on. 1) I would imagine that research papers require an extensive amount of data (at least I hope they do) to make inferences. My question is what is involved in gathering all of this data to test a theory/hypothesis? Highly varied. Almost all the work I do involves primary data collection. As in, I conduct experiments with human subjects. Other research uses archival data like sales of products or behavior on a website. Depending on what you want to answer, you will follow different approaches.
2) I see that your YouTube Channel is about the intuition of data but will you also have videos regarding those fundamentals behind the analysis (regression analysis, etc.)? If not do you have any helpful resources where one could develop these analytical fundamentals? I will, but the goal is intuition first. Other resources: coursera has fantastic data science courses. I recommend them quite a bit!
Why don't you use your powers for good? I try to! I sit on the board of a large local non-profit and give them as much advice on this stuff as I can. I also do some pro bono consulting for non-profits. It's not enough, but I try.
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Good Job, I'm currently watching Century Of the Self, and it's put a bit of bad taste in my mouth for "marketing" "Marketing" can be very evil. No doubt about it. I try to stay far away from that side of things as possible.
If you had a grand message to the world In The interest of happiness, young and old poor or rich what would you relay? Wow...way to be me on the spot! JK
I'd probably say that we should spend more time focusing on developing strong relationships than we do right now. We're all very caught up in getting better at something or getting more stuff, but research tells us time and time again that enduring happiness comes from the people we care about.
Have you done any research on consumer profiles based on political leanings? Do conservatives or liberals have different buying habits? In general, what are some of the best insights you’ve found in your research? I haven't looked at purchasing behavior based on political ideology. One that I have looked at is how political partisans respond to political lies. In short, Republicans and Democrats are fast to excuse lies from politicians within their own political party...but mostly if those lies are policy oriented. If they are personal lies (e.g. I'm awesome because I can bench press 10000lbs), most people tend to find those lies unacceptable. And I'm sure people will be quick to say that Republicans are more willing to excuse lies than Democrats and that's MOSTLY not true based on the data I have.
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That seems to contradict the most prominent Republican: Donald Trump who famously started his presidency by lying about his inauguration attendance. Not trying to pick a political fight mind you, but the whole “personal lies” thing doesn’t seem to apply there. Of course, you're right. Trump is the exception to everything, this research likely as well. Our work tries hard to avoid anything to do with Trump b/c he really is an exception in many ways. But even for Trump, our work suggests that Republican voters are more likely to excuse lies of his that support policy position than just prop him up somehow. Ultimately, though, yes, Trump break a lot of research...and a lot of other things too!
Hello, and thanks for doing this. I just have one question: ¿What would you say is the best way to make a costumer profile on young internet users? Like for a company that sells educational textbooks transforming into a company that has an educational streaming plataform where students receive the information true a videogame format. Sorry if I'm not clear enough, english is not my first language. I teach Marketing Research and get this type of question a lot. The truth is that without resources (e.g. money), doing something like this is hard. If you have a budget, I would hire a reputable consulting firm that specializes in online marketing and they will guide you with your specific application. Good luck!
What are your thoughts on the field of behavioral economics and how it relates to decision making? Are you looking to get me in trouble, b/c that's what's gonna happen here. Behavioral economics has its place, for sure. Let's decompose that a bit, though. There's behavioral and there's experimental.
Experimental I will admit, I am not a huge fan of. The experiments they run tend to be incredibly artificial, making their insights less than a great reflection of reality. The concepts are often just rehashes of social psychology for decades past, but with econ'y terms tagged on. And there is very much a holier-than-thou attitude about the discipline.
Behavioral, on the other hand, uses concepts in economics to explain behavioral phenomena more generally. Sometimes that's with experiments, but more often it's with real world data. I'm a big fan of when this is done well. Plenty of synergies between what they do and what decision making researchers and psychological researchers like me do.
Hi Jeff! Have you ever found in your research, results that were opposite to your initial hypothesis? If so, what was the most interesting time? Thanks! Not quite opposite, but we'll go with it. A while back a very famous psychologist published a paper "proving" ESP existed. I don't believe in ESP, but I thought it would be awesome if this psychologist were right. As in, it would be pretty cool if ESP were real. So I bet a colleague that we could replicate that original results. About a year later that colleague and I (and two other colleagues) published a paper that basically shut down all belief that the original finding of ESP was true. I happily lost that bet.
As a food service employee I am trying to figure out what’s next in the business post COVID-19. Do you have any thoughts on creative ways to grow business right now beyond offering curbside and delivery? Ditch the restaurant entirely. It's not a new model, but it should be bigger than it is. If I'm going to order deliver, why do I care what your restaurant looks like. Go rent some space in a commercial kitchen and make me a yummy meal that arrives at my door. There's definitely more of this these days, but I'm still amazed at the persistence of physical restaurants in so many cases. There's an amazing Chinese food place near me that doesn't even have seating, just a counter. The issue is that they are paying top dollar for rent on that space (it's in a high cost area) when all their business is takeout/delivery. Why not ditch the high rent and keep most of the business? Anyway, that's where I see this going.
Where do you think the culture is heading to? And, as the amount of people with depression increases and the majority of jobs get automated, would this have an impact on the economy? people without jobs become unhappy. Wow, that is WAY outside my expertise. Culture is highly fluid and we basically have no idea what will come next. (as an aside, if you can predict the next cultural change, let me know and we'll make billions!). So I have no clue where culture is going.
As for depression, that's a big issue and could be on the rise due to pandemic loneliness. Clinical psychologists will have their hands full for a while. I just hope people seek the help they need.
And as for automation, yes, that will change the economy as it has for decades now. How will gov'ts respond? I don't know. I hope we consider things like a universal basic income to help people avoid poverty. After that, it's anyone's guess.
Hi Professor, Thanks for doing this Ama! I'm currently getting an MBA in marketing and have been working on a few research papers focusing on the change of buying habits and the permanence of covid related purchasing behavior. Do you think consumers will continue to buy as they have over the past 6 months or is the uptick in online and delivery services temperary, particularly grocery delivery? 95% temporary. People like to go out and do things. Once the pandemic ends we'll be back to business as usual.
How do you feel about the way research papers are published? How has your school accommodated international students during the pandemic? Papers: lots of ways to answer this. I'll focus on open-access. I can't stand that papers that I work on, which are reviewed by referrees who don't get paid, edited by editors who don't get paid, are then profitted off of by private publishers who keep science from the public. That is insane. I strongly support open-access journals like PLOS ONE (where I am an editor). That said, the "private" journals are still the most prestigious in my field and if I want to advance in my career and make sure that my PhD students advance as well, I'm stuck submitting papers to them. It sucks.
Intl Students: I believe all classes must be accessible via remote learning. Even if they are held in person (few are), they need to stream the class to students who can't physically attend.
Hey Professor Galak! Thank you so much for doing this. I have always been fascinated by every topic that you just mentioned and in fact I have just recently presented my master thesis entitled "The Hedonic Stigma: How the consumer’s memory seeks shelter from hedonism in utilitarianism". Since I am still curious about a lot of things regarding the research I did and consumer behavior in general... Do you recommend any book that really made an impact in you or changed the way you see these complex topics? Thank you so much in advance. P.S. : By the way I just subscribed to your channel, best of luck! First, thank you! There is one book I have in mind and I can't think of the title at all. It's in my office on campus which I can't currently access thanks to Covid. It's a short book with a blue cover (not helpful, I know). It's about social psychology and had a lengthy discussion on pluralistic ignorance (one of my all time favorite topics in psychology). I remember that was the first book my advisor in grad school had me read and it changed the way I looked at people. Maybe someone on here knows what I'm talking about. The book was profound to me because it made me realize the interconnection between people and how others influence our decisions and preferences.
I don't actually plan to set foot on campus this semester so I can't even promise to get the book and tell you anytime soon. But if you can remember, ping me in like 3 months and I'll get it for you!
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Thank you so much for your time! Hope I remember to talk to you again so that I can find that misterious book! Stay safe! If I think of it, I promise to send you a PM!
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This sounds like it might be "How We Know What isn't So" by Thomas Gilovich. It's not, but great book and Tom is awesome. I've known him for years and aside from being an amazing psychologist he's just a super nice guy.
Hi Jeff! I think I’m too late but had one question. Without giving away my identity, my father is a long time professor of marketing and consumer behavior at a university. I’m sure you know each other or of each other in what is a relatively small field. What do you think about this crisis around replicating results? My father (as he nears retirement from teaching) recently has questioned so many of the studies he taught his students for years. Feels like so many of the surprising results that are taught are surprising because they’re not actually accurate. How can the field (and many other social science fields) fight the urge to look for surprising, counterintuitive results and still remain interesting and relevant? Your father is right to be concerned. I've been part of the Open Science movement as well as took part in a major replication effort showing that most studies don't replicate. It's a huge problem, but it's getting better. Journals are starting requiring authors to submit materials, data, code, and make statements declaring use of good research practices...universities are being much more careful in their promotion processes when evaluating faculty...and the tide is starting to shift away from sloppy and sexy research towards more rigorous work. So yes, a lot of the really flashy stuff is questionable, but almost all research isn't that flashy. I worry a lot, but I do think things are improving. Say hi to your dad if he knows me :)
Hi Jeff, Economics undergraduate here, I feel like in a lot of ways your work is very intertwined with what research has been coming out of the "behavioral econ" field in the past few decades. In your view, can controlled experiments in researching human psychology/preferences/interaction provide researchers with meaningful data? If so, what needs to be done to make sure that those research environments are not too "sterile", in that they no longer reflect outcomes in the real world? Yup. Almost all of the new "findings" in behavioral econ are just psychology findings from decades ago. Economists put their own flavor on it, but it's almost all a rehash (with some exceptions, to be sure). Often you find something like this: psychologist learned something 30 years ago, but the studies were pretty low powered and didn't incentivize participants. So a behavioral economist redoes the experiments with more power (bigger sample), incentivized participants, and then claims that they discovered something new. In reality, they often just re-discovered something that was already known, but tested the idea within the economics paradigms of research. Yes, I'm being cynical, but that's been my experience by and large.
As for sterility, you can learn a lot from the lab, but generalizing to larger more representative populations, with more realistic stimuli is important to verity what is learned in a lab.
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Thank you for answering! If I may ask another question, what are some questions on the cutting edge of the psychology of decision making? What are big topics that haven't yet been answered? I don't know, but I hope what happens is we actually have some direction. Right now, everyone just studies whatever they want, regardless of importance or value. That's fun, for sure, but doesn't move a field forward. What we need is to come together and define the 10-20 BIG questions that need to be answered and then all agree to work on those questions. Other fields have done this (see Math: https://www.claymath.org/millennium-problems), so there's some hope for us too.
Hey Jeff! I've started learning and gaining more interest in how data is involved in making decisions and the benefits of continously learning organizations. Even today, I was watching a video by a CMU PhD candidate (Jabe Bloom). I don't have a Masters in anything yet, but I have wondered if I would enjoy going to grad school and learning more. Do you have an experience to share or advice about when going back would or wouldn't be a good idea? I think you would have interesting thoughts based on being a Professor and having researched Design Science. Thanks! Really hard question to answer and it depends on the type of graduate work you want to do. If you just love learning, getting a masters in something like psychology or decision science is a no brainer. Masters programs let you dig in to topics that you find interesting and might even use for your career. Go for it.
On the other hand, if you are thinking about a PhD, that's a different story. Being an academic has less do with learning, and more to do with creating knowledge. A lot of students who are straight-A students fail in a PhD because they can't make the leap from learning to creating. So if your passion is to create knowledge, a PhD is for you. If you just want to learn (nothing wrong with that!!!), a masters program makes sense.
Professer Galak, thank you for doing this. I don't know much about Marketing, so I got some perhaps basic questions that I have been curious about for you: As we are still in the middle of the pandamic, many of us are doing more (even more than before) online shopping. What do you think are some of the major consumer decision making difference when it comes to online shopping vs inperson shopping. Do you think different factors can affect consumer happiness for the same product purchased through different channel? Definitely not a basic question! There's a lot here, but I'll focus on one thing: transaction friction. With inperson shopping, to buy something, you have to actually get off your butt, go to a store, and find what you want. With online shopping, you can just click "buy now". That means you'll have way more impulse purchases and way more wasted spending. We already saw that before the pandemic as Amazon and the like took over retail. Now we'll see more of it. It doesn't help that pandemics bring anxiety and fear...two things that are known to increase desire to shop (think "retail therapy")
We all tend towards anthropocentrism and exceptionalism, and rationalise our own behaviour. In your experience, is human behaviour more complex or less complex than we often imagine? Is free will often an illusion and are we more predictable than we imagine? I remember watching a tongue-in-cheek BBC documentary from back in the day, where people suffering relationship difficulties were offered advice from a relationship therapist, who was actually a dog trainer. It was quite interesting how much a few biscuits and cups of tea seemingly improved troubled relationships, as they taught partners to use what amounted to classical conditioning instead of berating each other. Both. We are easily manipulated and influenced by our environment. Much more so than most people realize. On the other hand, humans have the capacity to really surprise even themselves. Just look at what humanity has accomplished despite all our shortcomings. It's kind of amazing when you really reflect on this.
I've been reading that decision-making depends critically on the emotional parts of the brain. For example, a truly Spock-like person would be indecisive to the point of paralysis. Unfortunately, emotion also pushes us toward confirmation bias and in-group vs out-group bias, which is not optimal. Are there tricks/brainhacks for preventing emotion-based bias? For example, in the case of a yes/no decision, could we flip a coin and inhabit the "yes" emotional world for a day, then switch to the "no" side and inhabit it for a day? After that, an emotion-based decision might be less biased? Great question with a lot to unpack. First, biases don't require emotionality. Most biases are purely cognitive in nature...meaning you they don't involve emotions at all. Things like confirmation bias, in-out group bias etc all don't involve emotions (they can certainly be emotional, but they don't need emotions to operate). So I think what you're thinking of is what is known as System 1 vs 2 processes. System 1 are the automatic behaviors that happen quickly and often result in biases. System 2 is the more deliberative way of thinking that can have other biases, but not the kind you're thinking of.
Now to emotions, yes, they matter a lot and emotional decision making is its own sub-field in psychology. Strong emotions CAN push people to act quickly (system 1), but that's not always the case.
So how do you prevent some of these errors in judgments? First, pre-defining how you plan to make a decision is important. Come up with rules that you plan to follow and stick to those. Don't let emotions or circumstances change that. Second, if you find yourself highly emotional for whatever reason, DON'T MAKE IMPORTANT DECISIONS! It's less about bias and more about tunnel vision...you just can't focus on all the things that matter. Finally, sometimes, emotions HELP decision making. Fight-or-flight responses are a real thing and they are typically triggered by extreme fear. You don't want a slow deliberation if someone is about to punch you. You need to react. Right away. So in those cases, emotions can actually be very beneficial.
Hey! Ive got a question! Why even though we all know that companies put price tags like 4.99€ on products to trick us in believing they are cheaper than they are, they keep on doing it. In fact lately ive noticed that they started putting 4.98€ instead, can you explain why do they keep doing what we already know why its done? Does it really trick us? In short, it works. People are what we call "cognitive misers". They are lazy (me too, by the way...all of us). Sure if you focus carefully you'll see that 4.99 is just 5, but most of the time we don't have the mental energy/capacity to do so. So we see 4.99 as 4. That might make the difference between you buying something and not...so firms keep doing it. 4.98, is the same basic idea, but it also helps with online searches. If you sort by lowest price, 4.98 will come before 4.99.
I work in the tourism marketing field - do you have any insights on how to convince people to visit other places in their own country rather than travelling abroad? Obviously COVID has made this aspect fairly important as most of us can’t travel internationally. Until people feel safe, they won't travel anywhere. Once some level of safety is reached, perhaps focusing on the fact that some local tourism doesn't require air travel, which may still be perceived as a risk. Once we have a vaccine and it is well distributed, you'll be back to the normal operations of tourism. Some will go domestic and some will go abroad. I suspect that in the initial recovery there will be much more int'l travel. People will want to get as far from the home they've been cooped up in as possible. Good luck!
Do you fit your theories into ACT-R? If so, how do you reconcile its decay model with real life? I am much more a social psychologist than a cognitive psychologists, so I honestly don't ever think about ACT-R or other cognitive models like it.
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I'll redo my original question then. How do you account for decision changes over time? E.g., A person doesn't buy a car initially, but buys it later after one week. I don't understand what you mean by "account"? My research is almost entirely experimental in nature, where I randomly assign participants to various conditions and observe the causal consequences of doing so. People can change their minds all they want, so long as they don't do so differently across conditions (which is where random assignment comes in).
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My question is what is you explanation (theoey/hypothesis) for why people change their minds? Sorry I wasn't being clear. Got it. Preferences are largely constructed based on context (see work by John Payne). That largely explains most changes of opinions/choices.
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Sounds magical. What contexts change decisions and how? This is getting confrontational, and I'm sorry if I contributed to that. Constructed preferences refers to the fact that decisions are highly influenced by contextual factors, most prominently other options. Things like the compromise effect, decoy effect, default effect, etc... all demonstrate that people's preferences can change very easily just by virtue of the environment that those decisions are made in. In other words, preferences are very malleable. For a great review of this, I suggest this: https://www.decisionresearch.org/publication/the-construction-of-preference/
Be safe.
if your so smart why didn't you buy tsla at $200 per share? Who said I was smart?
Is it really correct to have two ands in your title? Sadly, it is. "Marketing" is one area and "Social and Decision Science" is another area. So I'm both "Marketing" and "Social and Decision Science". It's ugly, I know.
Hi Jeff! Im curious about gift giving from a marketing perspective. Do people value physical gifts more than a “free webinar” or downloadable booklet? And do they only value those later free things if they consume them or if they just sign up for them? Gifts from firms are very different than gifts from people. For the latter, we understand that the motive is USUALLY to do something nice. For the former, we undrestand that the motive is get me to do something (e.g. buy a future webinar). That said, gifts from firms to increase participation, but I don't think they are any more effective than, say, a price discount or a "free intro" promotion.
How can I, a finance student, develop more of my marketer side? Thank you for the hard work professor The easy answer is take marketing courses. Short of that, consider a Coursera course like this one:https://www.coursera.org/learn/wharton-marketing?utm_source=gg&utm_medium=sem&utm_content=01-CourseraCatalog-DSA-US&campaignid=9918777773&adgroupid=102058276958&device=c&keyword=&matchtype=b&network=g&devicemodel=&adpostion=&creativeid=434544785640&hide_mobile_promo&gclid=CjwKCAjw4rf6BRAvEiwAn2Q76pMC6znD88ijC2vBI1HD2oRnG6s3TDglhhANO3QYuqiuUdjgW8r01RoCC_EQAvD_BwE
(I have no affiliation with Coursera or that course...just seems reasonable).
Can your studies be replicated? Have you tried? I sure hope so! I've replicated plenty myself and other labs have replicated lots of my work, but not all of it. Across all my published papers, there are more than 100 experiments. The reality is that some are just not interesting enough to others to bother replicating...that's just part of doing science...some of it is big and important and some proves not be...though it's often hard to tell in advance which projects will be impactful and which won't. For those that have been replicated, I believe all have confirmed my original work.
Besides online shopping, what other big shifts in consumer behavior are you seeing, or theorizing will change dramatically, through this pandemic? I think you'll see a split among people in terms of digital engagement. Some will just dig in all the way and live on Netflix. But some will go the other route and explore nature for the first time, or play more board games, or read more books.
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Thanks for the reply. What of deep-seated attitudes like those that seem to be present in those from the Great Depression, e.g. thriftiness? The Great Depression lasted for a decade and, as much as this pandemic sucks, it is nowhere near as devastating financially as the 1930s were. So no, I don't think you'll see that level of thriftiness. I'm hopeful that we'll have a vaccine in a year or so and in 2-3 years we'll have largely recovered financially. Maybe I'm being too optimistic, but that's all I have to keep me going :)
Are you a cat person or a dog person? Why? I have a cat, but I want a dog. my cat doesn't do anything and just takes up space. A dog would be fun to play with and bond with, but I have two young children, a career, and a pandemic to deal with. I just don't have capacity for a dog.
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I see. Thanks for answering. Can you give out your top 10 TO READ BEFORE YOU DIE books? It can be a mix of fiction, non fiction, self-help, depressing, life changing books. :D I appreciate the spirit of the question, but books are so individualized. What I find amazing won't be what others do. That said, just off the top of my head:
1. How to lie with statistics.
2. Ender's game
3. Predictably Irrational
4. Night
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Thank you for the answer again! Last but not the least. I'm failing community college. During the summer break, I got help with a therapist as well as my girlfriend supporting my focusing on mental health. Anyway, do you think it's still a wise decision to go to a UC when I transfer? Because right now, I could prolly go to SJSU after some time mending my failures but I want to achieve more. Do you think I can go to like say...UC B? If so, what is one advice you'll give to a student who's failing but wants to succeed? The process for getting a psych eval for adhd/clinical depression is in the works. I might get medicine after some months. i wish I could give you a direct answer, but I really can't. I strongly suggest speaking to an advisor or counselor at your CC or at SJSU to find out what your best course of action is.
As for advice, consider if higher education is the right path for you. It well might be! but for some, it's just not the way to go. People have amazing lives working in trades or working for themselves. If you love learning and want to use the knowledge you gain for a career, go for it. If you're just doing it because "that's what people do," maybe consider what other options you have.
Good luck with whatever you do!
Do you think of Big Data as a natural and/or renewable resource? Would you support regulating Big Data as a public utility or public good alongside ailand/water? Honestly, I have never considered big data as a resource that way. I'd love to learn more about that idea...is there something you can recommend as a resource/reading?
What kind of melon is your favorite? Watermelon, easily.
submitted by 500scnds to tabled [link] [comments]


2020.10.25 02:00 Alpha27_ the Crown Tundra is...interesting... - Crown Tundra Review

Hi there, I'm a Reddit User, and I'm making a review-post of the latest bit of DLC for Pokemon Sword and Shield; the Crown Tundra. Why am I making this? Simply put, because I can as long as I dont break any rules. Anywho, I'll be focusing on the things I liked first, and then the things I dont like, so if you're more interested in what is either a hot or cold take, its at the bottom. Also, I did complete the DLC, however I use it in that I got to the The End screen after solving all three Expeditions for Peony, though I am aware of some finer bits afterwards. Anywho, lets begin.
NOTE: I played Shield. So I'll be referencing the Shield Content.

Things I liked
---
The Characters - I liked Peony to an extent, he's just a proud Dad who wants to have some fun with his kid by exploring a mostly unknown area, with whole mysteries and stuff lined up to boot. I also enjoyed the bit of lore his League Card gives, painting him as a former Steel-type Gym Leader. You know, theres all these talks about Major and Minor Divisions, but we never seem to fight or even meet any of the Minor Division. Avery used to be a Psychic-type Gym Leader, and Klara wanted to be a Poison-type, pretty cool, and now we know Peony used to be a Steel-type Leader. Even Mustard was a Fighting-type Leader at one point before being Champion.
Peonia was fine enough, I didn't really vibe with her to a big extent, she was just...there. Funny story though; I mistook her for Anabel when I first saw her. I dont know why...
Calyrex, technically he's a Pokemon but he takes control of Peony to speak through him and that's enough for me. He's cool, he just wants to get his horse back(I chose Spectrier btw), and I think its pretty cool that he has a form where he straight-up rides Spectrier(though his goal is kinda more that he wants his power back, and by-definition SpectrieGlastrier). Kinda reminds me of black and White Kyurem except its not a forced genetic-splicing that probably is very painful for both parties. Also, he has this expression thats just hilarious to me, his iris' do the anime-surprised thing and basically become dots and it just looks hilarious for me. Also I chose Spectrier because aesthetically, I'm a fan of duality, so here we have a King who can bestow life and growth to plants and shit, and all the while rides a mighty Steed who embodies the afterlife, its cool. And finally, I love how he straight-up possesses Peony in order to speak. They didnt do the usual rode and give him telepathy, he basically has to yoink someone's body in order to speak english.
The Music - I liked some of the tracks used for the DLC, my personal favorite being the new theme for the Kanto-Galar Birds, it slaps harder than Helping Hand. May've taken them about 20 years and a completely different version but hey, whatever works.
The "Wild Area" - The entire map is a Wild Area, and while this is true for the Isle of Armor as well, here's the thing; the Crown Tundra has a town(well, as much of a town you can get in SwSh). No entrance, no fixed camera, its straight-up a town, in the middle of the "Wild Area", it actually felt like I was playing a proper 3D pokemon game, in my opinion. Just wish the name was a bit better..."Freezington" is a little...lazy? Idk... Other than that, very cool.
The Gameplay - The storyline was pretty alright. The "story" is basically three sidequests, one involving Calyrex, one with the Regis, and then the one with the Kanto-Galar Birds, and its alright. The Calyrex Quest is fine enough, find Calyrex's horse, and then try to catch them both, thankfully as one, not seperately.
The Regi Quest is really neat, gone are the days of needing to have a Relicanth and Wailord, all you need is to do the individual clues to unlock each lock, and its pretty cool. Also, I love how they use the remixed version of the Chamber themes like in ORAS.
The final quest is to find the Galar-Kanto Birds, Galarian Forms of Articuno, Zapdos, and Moltres. Basically, when they spawn, one goes to each Wild Area, Articuno is in the Crown Tundra, Zados at the Mainland Wild Area, and Moltres at the Isle of Armor, and roam, like how they original did. However, Gamefreak made a wonderous change that makes finding them easier than you'd think; they made the Birds render-distance MUCH higher on the map. You wouldn't believe my absolute joy when I realized I didnt need to be closer than 6 feet in order to just see the things, it was amazing. Also I love how while you have to actively chase Zapdos and Moltres, once Articuno sees you it'd rather flex its Kage Bunshin No Jutsu and then do a little speen. Funny. Also, unlike their Kanto Counterparts, these guys actually get a unique theme, and I will say as I did before; its awesome, like, really awesome.
The Galarian Star Tournament - I'm honestly mostly neutral on this, but it is a great way to farm money in case you need extra coin for whatever reason. Seriously, with an Amulet Coin you can rake in a whopping 72K per match! Very cool! It also does give some cool interactions between your opponents and your partner, depending on who you pick. However, there is one thing about the Star Tournament I didn't quite like...

Welp, here it is, the one people are more likely to be interested because salt makes the world go 'round. I promise that I'll try to remain civil, but the amount of negativity I feel regarding these might make it difficult, hence why I tagged this as Discussion/Venting. Also this is all my personal opinion, even if its wrong, and if you feel differently about some of these points, that's fine, as for me, I'm gonna hold mine. Lets begin.

Things I didn't like
---
Max Lairs - When these were revealed, I was ecstatic, I'm sure we all were, the Legendaries are all coming back!? Max Raid Gauntlets!? Hell yeah! However, the execution is less than stellar...in my opinion, atleast.
For one, you're not allowed to use your own pokemon. You basically have to use one of three rentals, as well as whatever pokemon you run into during the Max Adventure. The problem though is not all of the selections are very stellar. Either the pokemon has poor stats, a poor moveset, or just dont handle well when given to an AI. Another thing; your losses carry over. What this means is if you or an Ally faints, and the Max Storm or whatever tf its called, gets stronger, that shit does NOT reset if/when you win. If you lost a "life", you still only have three lives. I get that this can be remedied with it being for difficulty, but when the NPCs are this stupid, its really, REALLY hard. "Just play online", well, that would be simple, but again, you're forced to use rentals, and the rentals aren't always the best. You can see what I mean.
And then there's the fact that not all of the Legendaries are available. The Mythicals are basically non-existent. No Arceus, no Victini, no Deoxys, and strangely enough no Darkrai, despite it being the counterpart to Cresselia, who is in the game. What??? The only solace I get is that this probably means they're planning something, whether its a 3rd Expansion(or 2nd if the Isle and Tundra are considered one?) or just flat-out releasing Codes, but either way, it doesn't sit right with me.
Finally, there's the fact that while you can save a Legendary and fight it again in-case you lose, but you can only save three, any more and you'll have to delete one, and pray to RNGsus you find it again. Pile that on with the AI being more A than I, and you just have an unpleasant experience. In my opinion, I'll just save up to renew my Pokebank and then buy the Pokemon Home thing, because I dont think its worth it. Is it petty of me? Absolutely. But it's what I want to do so I'm going to do it.
- These last two are far tamer, just want you to know -
The Galar-Kanto Birds - This one is not too bad, my major issue is that its more Kanto stuff. We already have 12 Kanto GMaxs and 10 Galar-Regional Variants, 13 if you count the Birds, I wish they would either redo more less-represented Legendaries, or just straight-up make new ones. I'm honestly tired of all the Gen 1 fanservice. Maybe if they were renamed and said they were related to the Kanto-Birds then it'd be fine, but nope, straight-up Galarian forms of the Birds. They're theme slaps, but their inclusion feels more like a shove.
The Galarian Star Tournament - I know I already went on praising this one, but there is a very small tidbit that urked me; its kinda unfair. Unlike you're enemies and partner who're restricted to basic Multi-Battle Rules, you're allowed to use your entire team. Yeah that can be useful but that basically makes each battle a cakewalk. Now, I think you're allowed to do this in the story-line battles, like when you and Hop fight the two Yell Grunts, but this is a legitimate tournament-style thing, you'd think you'd be limited the same way you partner and opponents are...

And that's about it. Half of it was me praising it for things I enjoyed, the other half a good chance of me just being wrong, but who knows. I know a lot of my opinions are likely gonna be seen as super weird, but thats just how I feel about them, and I understand if you feel differently. Criticism is welcome, but flat-out being a dick isn't, but I can't enforce that so by all means, tell me what you think, if any input at all, please.
submitted by Alpha27_ to pokemon [link] [comments]


2020.10.25 01:55 vice_fungal (130-140lbs) Did 75mgs my first time, then 225mgs, now I want to do 450mgs (Robitussin gel caps)

Alright boys(and ladies 😎) I'm just wondering what you guys thought about 450mgs for a third time experience. I definitely feel comfortable with it, just wondering what you guys think. Edit: I waited about two hours after eating dinner before dosing the first two times, it was a large meal (I've waited sufficient amount of time between dosing) I did notice I got dizzy when I was peaking at 225mgs but it soon passed and I was having a wonderful time. I guess I'm curious is the dizziness a big part of the experience? Should I expect to get damn dizzy or what? I get motion sick pretty easily. Both times I didn't smoke any weed, tolerance is very low to non existent as I maybe smoke once a week. Would smoking weed this time around be a bad idea as it could really potentiate it alot ? Would it make the dizziness worse for someone who doesn't usually smoke? When is the best time to smoke? Right after ingestion of the pills, the come up, on the peak, or after the peak? Also would a 200mg edible to be to insane to mix in rather than smoke a joint?(I like to believe I have a slightly higher tolerance for edibles but I was thinking of maybe splitting into half, or 100mgs as I wouldn't want to pass out) When would be the best time to take the edible in relation to dosing? Thank you 😁 And understand none of this is really to crazy and I don't really need to ask, and if I couldn't ask you guys I'd just try it out but since I have do have this wonderful community I thought it wouldn't hurt.
submitted by vice_fungal to dxm [link] [comments]


2020.10.25 01:16 mandinov [BREEDS] We need help deciding our first puppy. Thank you!

**Introduction**
Hi, glad to have found this sub to help me and my partner look for our first puppy. We're moving to a flat early next year that will allow us to get our first puppy, and want your input to help us choose the best! Thank you in advance :)
1) Will this be your first dog? If not, what experience do you have owning/training dogs?

* Yes, first time owners. My partner had a Cavalier growing up but I've never had a dog before and I always wanted one.

2) Do you have a preference for rescuing a dog vs. going through a [reputable breeder]( http://ownresponsibly.blogspot.com/2011/07/identifying-reputable-breeder.html)?

* Not particularly, although we're leaning towards rescuing.

3) Describe your ideal dog.

* We live in a flat around 60mt sq, in center of Milan, right next to a small park (on the doorstep). With this in mind, we're thinking mostly of small/medium size, that doesn't need a ton of exercising. Would prefer no drooling, not a ton of shedding. Don't care much about it being loud or not. We love cuddling so definitely if it's that sort of dog (i think it's called lap dog?). Also, ideally not terribly unhealthy, althought the more research I do, the more I feel like every single dog has health problems.. with that in mind, we're considering a mutt as I understand they tend to be more healthy?
An ideal dog for us is a companion. Someone that will be part of the family and we'll grow together. My partner adds "and it will always look like a puppy". Someone we can play and chill with.

4) What breeds or types of dogs are you interested in and why?

* We've done some online quizz, and etc, and keep on changing our top choices.. We thought of French Bulldog, Daschund, Pug, Cavalier, Beagle... The list keeps changing, we're open to suggestions.

5) What sorts of things would you like to train your dog to do?

* Not escaping if not on a leash. Probably only thing.

6) Do you want to compete with your dog in a sport (e.g. agility, obedience, rally) or use your dog for a form of work (e.g. hunting, herding, livestock guarding)? If so, how much experience do you have with this work/sport?

* No

**Care Commitments**

7) How long do you want to devote to training, playing with, or otherwise interacting with your dog each day?

* Couple hours a day. Maybe less during the week and much more during weekends.

8) How long can you exercise your dog each day, on average? What sorts of exercise are you planning to give your dog regularly and does that include using a dog park?

* Around 1 hour a day, maybe even more. Short walks in the morning, walks on lunchtime maybe, longer walks late afternoons on the dog park nearby.

9) How much regular brushing are you willing to do? Are you open to trimming hair, cleaning ears, or doing other grooming at home? If not, would you be willing to pay a professional to do it regularly?

* Happy to pay for a professional once a month and shampooing at home, as well as learning some basics if needed.

**Personal Preferences**

10) What size dog are you looking for?

* From answers above, small is the preference

11) How much shedding, barking, and slobber can you handle?

* Very little of slobbeshedding. Ok with some barking.

12) How important is being able to let your dog off-leash in an unfenced area?

* Not a priority, but would like to have the option.

**Dog Personality and Behavior**

13) Do you want a snuggly dog or one that prefers some personal space?

* Snuggly for sure

14) Would you prefer a dog that wants to do its own thing or one that’s more eager-to-please?

* Same, no preference here.

15) How would you prefer your dog to respond to someone knocking on the door or entering your yard? How would you prefer your dog to greet strangers or visitors?

* Friendly, easy to get along with

16) Are you willing to manage a dog that is aggressive to other dogs?

* Not particularly

17) Are there any other behaviors you can’t deal with or want to avoid?

* don't think so

**Lifestyle**

18) How often and how long will the dog be left alone?

* Potentially never, except for maybe 1/2 hours a week

19) What are the dog-related preferences of other people in the house and what will be their involvement in caring for the dog?

* Living with my partner, both are super excited for the opportunity to have a dog. We're moving to a flat where we will be able of doing so finally. 50/50 responsibility

20) Do you have other pets or are you planning on having other pets? What breed or type of animal are they?

* Not for the time being. Maybe getting other pets some years later

21) Will the dog be interacting with children regularly?

* We're not pregnant today, maybe tomorrow.. It will definitely have to interact with a child at some point

22) Do you rent or plan to rent in the future? If applicable, what breed or weight restrictions are on your current lease?

* No

23) What city or country do you live in and are you aware of any laws banning certain breeds?

* Milano, Italy. Not aware of any laws impacting us

24) What is the average temperature of a typical summer and winter day where you live?

* Summer around 25-30 Celsius. Winter ~5 Celcius

**Additional Information and Questions**

25) Please provide any additional information you feel may be relevant.

* When doing some questionnaires, we read the Basenji as being a great recommendation for us, but we don't like it aesthetically. We love how beagles look, but read they are hard to deal with. We have a preference for shorter noses and non-erect ears.

26) Feel free to ask any questions below.

* Is it true that mutts are stronger than breeds? We sort of heard this rumour and it's making us more interested in just going to a shelter and pick up the dog that simply "feels right".
submitted by mandinov to dogs [link] [comments]


2020.10.25 01:07 merrymomiji Cat has asthma and high TNT levels--what to do?

Greetings. Please forgive my lack of medical knowledge/terminology and for the really long post. I am looking for opinions of what may be wrong or what I can potentially expect for future treatment for my cat. We just learned his TNT (troponin) blood test levels were very high.
Background: My 7-year-old male, indoors-only cat has had asthma probably since he was 2-3 years old. This is a cat who has a constant simmer of purrs when someone is within 10 feet of him. Initially, my husband and I didn't know what it was, and he'd have a coughing attack maybe once a month or something that sounded like he was trying to throw up a hairball but no luck. The asthma attacks could come out of nowhere (while at rest) or potentially after a moment of exercise or stress. They were infrequent.
About 3 years ago, we moved states, and the attacks became more frequent (a couple of times a week to once a day or more). At no point did he ever collapse, turn blue, become lethargic, etc., so we never rushed him to a vet or ER. He started to sound a little congested, so we made an appointment for him with his vet and given an antibiotic because his lungs sounded inflamed. He was also given a steroid shot, but I can't remember the specifics. We took him back a couple of weeks later for a follow up, and while the congestion had tamed down, the attacks had only lessened, not ceased to exist. So the vet prescribed him Flovent via AeroKat, and after an arduous training process, he learned to accept his daily puff. It was uncommon for him to go a day or two without an attack, but the congestion was gone and the frequency was reduced. We bought a gigantic air purifier, tried to cut down on any air irritants, and regularly dust and vacuum like most people do. We are non-smokers, FWIW, and don't light lots of candles or incense.
Present day: Fast forward to this past fall. His attacks have ramped up again to multiple times a day and he started to sound congested once again. Not emergency vet visit-bad, but definitely not good. His energy levels have been normal, he uses the litter box normally, eats normally, and has not had a fever. No runny nose, vomiting, sneezing, etc. I called his vet, which is very backed up due to COVID, and had to wait a week for an appointment, though they said to take him to an emergency vet if things got really bad, of course. I took him in yesterday but I couldn't go in with him due to COVID restrictions. The vet said his lungs sounded pretty bad like he may have some fluid present, so she ordered bloodwork, a chest xray, and a throat swab to test for different things.
She looked at the xrays, but they haven't been officially "read" by the offsite radiology team yet and I likely won't be hearing back until Monday now. She said she didn't see a lot of fluid (?) but his bronchioles (?) looked enlarged, which isn't surprising given the frequencies of his asthma attacks. She gave him the antibiotic Convenia as preventive measure even though it could be viral. I believe this is the same antibiotic he had 3 years ago. I think both times the term "mycoplasma" was thrown out in relation to what could be irritating his lungs, but he wasn't specifically tested for it last time. She also said to give him two puffs a day now of his inhaler until we learn more. Last night he had a fair number of attacks and still sounded congested. My husband gave him two puffs right away this morning (though they're supposed to be separated, I believe) and we haven't witnessed any attacks since (so far, though we do expect some). He is also sounding a bit clearer.
The bad and confusing news: the vet called me back this afternoon with his bloodwork results. Kidneys, liver, thyroid seem good. His white blood cell count was slightly low, but she wasn't worried about it. Urine was fine (didn't know they tested it?). What was troubling was his TNT number (sorry if I'm using the wrong term). It's the test that measures the troponin levels circulating in his blood. She said a high-normal level was 190 and his number was 590 (!), which could be an indicator of a heart problem. She didn't think he was necessarily in heart failure given that she didn't see fluid around his heart or lungs in the xray, but it could be an indicator of a heart attack or a few other things. She said they can't be certain without a cardiac x-ray ($650). She also said we could have that level re-tested since it is so high, but that testing that one individual thing is excessively expensive ($160). She said it's cheaper for some reason in combination with other tests, but she didn't imply there would be other bloodwork needed, so...
Anyway, my husband and I are in a holding pattern until we learn more about his official lung xray results and his throat swab results. Have any of you had a cat with similar symptoms (basically just progressively bad asthma attacks) and congestion? We are hoping his antibiotic will kick in to clear up the gunk soon and that the attacks lessen with the increased inhaler use. We know from the past he may have to go on steroids to reduce whatever is irritating his lungs so much, and we know that could cause diabetes down the road. We've accepted that. If we find out he's had a heart attack or is in some type of heart failure, what's the treatment or prognosis? I appreciate your opinions.
submitted by merrymomiji to catcare [link] [comments]


2020.10.25 01:01 ultradip New to r/Charity? Read this first!

Welcome to /Charity!

Got a charitable cause you'd like to share! This is the place!

Requirements

For 501c(3) non-profits (US) or a Non-Governmental Organization (aka NGO outside the US)

Please modmail us so that we can flair your post as a registered certified non-profit!

For Everyone Else

You must have both

NOTE: We are specifically looking for COMMENT karma. The karma value you are probably looking at is a COMBINED value, consisting of both Link/Post karma plus Comment karma.

To view your karma breakdown:
The following circumventions will result in a ban:
Comment Karma is directly correlated to how many comments you leave plus/minus any points as people upvote a popular comment or downvote an unpopular comment.

Credibility, Community, and You

AKA, Why Do We Have Account Requirements for Individuals?
In an effort to make your crowdfunding efforts more successful here on Reddit, some background first:
In many of the gifting and fundraising subs, you'll notice that without a certain amount "karma" and an account that's old enough, you'll garner down votes or worse, your posts and comments get automatically removed.
Why?
To many Redditors, this place is a community built on activity. The "coin" of the land here is your account, and how much you've contributed to the Reddit community at large reflected in post and comment karma.
As a general rule, Redditors dislike the creation of accounts specifically to fund raise or to make requests. It makes it seem like these people simply treat Reddit as some sort of magical internet wallet, and that doesn't win many friends.
The other reason why new accounts are so disliked is that they're often alternate accounts of established users, in order to hide their activity from people they know. While we do sympathize with those of you who have valid reasons, this privilege is often abused by those who create disposable accounts to scam people for a quick buck.
This trust issue doesn't exist in the same way with certified non-profit groups, as you can look them up online for verification, and at least in the case of 501c(3)s, their spending is transparent due to their required tax filings which are public information.
So if you're new to Reddit, welcome! Spend some time and look around for something that catches your interest and chat it up with others and become part of the community!
However if you're here for the sole reason of making requests in a hurry, please be aware your pleas for help will likely be ignored.
REMEMBER, CREDIBILITY AND COMMUNITY IS EVERYTHING!
For this reason, the mods will not post anything on behalf of any user that does not meet account requirements.

Rules

  1. Posts must be more than just a link to your campaign. Be descriptive! Be prepared to show evidence if needed. If the mods find it lacking, it may be removed. If this campaign does not show it's for a registered non-profit organization, you must include a photo of yourself with your username on a handwritten note, unless it's for a pet, in which case the photo should be of your pet with the handwritten note of your username.
  2. Please Flair your posts, once created. If you don't know how, just let the mods know and we'll do it for you.
  3. Only 1 campaign per user. We want you have some personal connection to the campaign, and not submit multiples simply because they were in the news.
  4. Reposts are allowed once a week. If a repost comes up too early, the newest one(s) will be removed.
  5. Acceptable transfer methods for individuals are for crowdfunding sites only, such as GoFundme, YouCaring, etc. Individuals should avoid using Paypal, crypto, or direct banking aps (like Chase). 501c(3) and NGOs may use whatever method they wish.
  6. Don't PM people to make requests. If you receive an unsolicited private message, please let us know!
  7. Do not post politically-related campaigns. They're just too divisive.
  8. Trolling will not be tolerated and offending users will be banned.
  9. Don't bug the mods for an exception to the account requirements. None will be given. If you attempt to circumvent the requirement by karma farming or by commenting on someone else's post, your account will be banned.
  10. No posting for other Redditors. No Alts. This is viewed as a circumvention of requirements and both accounts will be banned. (New Oct 22, 2020)

Supporting Information Requested for Non-501c(3) and Non-NGO campaigns.

We aren't the government. We aren't a court of law. We definitely don't want you to give out information that could lead to identity theft. However, some campaigns are more successful when they have additional documentation.
This includes:
Low effort posts that simply say to the effect of, "everything is listed in the GoFundMe" (or less!) will be removed.

Advice On Making Your Campaign Go Further

Not all crowdfunding campaigns are the same, but here are some suggestions.

Questions?

Please don't hesitate to ask the mods!
... Unless you're trying to ask for an exception to the account requirements.
submitted by ultradip to Charity [link] [comments]


2020.10.25 01:01 ultradip Weekly Rules Reminder - New to our sub? Please read this first!

Welcome to /gofundme!

____
In an effort to make your crowdfunding efforts more successful here on Reddit, some background first:

Credibility, Community, and You
AKA, Why Do We Have Account Requirements?
In many of the gifting and fundraising subs, you'll notice that without a certain amount "karma" and an account that's old enough, you'll garner down votes or worse, your posts and comments get automatically removed.
Why?
To many Redditors, this place is a community built on activity. The "coin" of the land here is your account, and how much you've contributed to the Reddit community at large reflected in post and comment karma.
As a general rule, Redditors dislike the creation of accounts specifically to fund raise or to make requests. It makes it seem like these people simply treat Reddit as some sort of magical internet wallet, and that doesn't win many friends.
The other reason why new accounts are so disliked is that they're often alternate accounts of established users, in order to hide their activity from people they know. While we do sympathize with those of you who have valid reasons, this privilege is often abused by those who create disposable accounts to scam people for a quick buck.
So if you're new to Reddit, welcome! Spend some time and look around for something that catches your interest and chat it up with others and become part of the community!
However if you're here for the sole reason of making requests in a hurry, please be aware your pleas for help will likely be ignored.

**REMEMBER, CREDIBILITY AND COMMUNITY IS EVERYTHING!**

For this reason, the mods will not post anything on behalf of any user that does not meet account requirements.
_____
Account Requirements
All accounts must meet BOTH of the following:
  1. Account age of 90 days or older.
  2. *Comment* karma of 500 or greater.
NOTE: We are specifically looking for *COMMENT* karma. The karma value you are probably looking at is a COMBINED value, consisting of both Link/Post karma plus Comment karma.

To view your karma breakdown:

The following circumventions will result in a ban, and get you added to the UniversalScammerList:
Comment Karma is directly correlated to how many comments you leave plus/minus any points as people upvote a popular comment or downvote an unpopular comment.
_____
Rules

  1. Posts must be more than just a link to your campaign. Be descriptive! Be prepared to show evidence if needed. If the mods find it lacking, it may be removed.
  2. Please Flair your posts, once created. If you don't know how, just let the mods know and we'll do it for you.
  3. Only 1 GoFundMe per user. We want you have some personal connection to the campaign, and not submit multiple GFMs simply because they were in the news.
  4. Reposts are allowed once a week. If a repost comes up too early, the newest one(s) will be removed.
  5. Crowdfunding sites only. No crypto currency, direct PayPal, cash transfers, trading or loans. Our scope is only GoFundMe and other crowd sourced funding sites.
  6. Don't PM people to make requests. If you receive an unsolicited private message, please let us know!
  7. Do not post politically-related campaigns. They're just too divisive. Also, they're too often used to scam people (remember the campaign to fund Trump's wall?).
  8. Trolling will not be tolerated and offending users will be banned.
  9. Don't bug the mods for an exception to the account requirements. None will be given. If you attempt to circumvent the requirement by karma farming or by commenting on someone else's post, your account will be banned.
  10. No posting for other Redditors. No Alts. This is viewed as a circumvention of the requirements and the accounts in question will be banned. (New Oct 22, 2020)
_____
Supporting Information Requested
We aren't the government. We aren't a court of law. We definitely don't want you to give out information that could lead to identity theft. However, some campaigns are more successful when they have additional documentation.
This includes:
- Pet related requests: Photos of your pet in question, with your username on a handwritten note in the picture. This helps show you actually own the pet in question.
- Education related requests: Documentation showing enrollment or acceptance if you are asking for assistance for school.
- Redacted bills showing your situation. In some cases, a donor may prefer to pay a creditor directly on your behalf, so be prepared and find out if that is available to you.
- If you are sharing a campaign for a registered certified non-profit organization (such as a 501c3 or NGO), you should say so in the post, and it should list that status on the campaign page/web site.
- Or other relevant documentation that can help establish credibility.
Low effort posts that simply say to the effect of, "everything is listed in the GoFundMe" (or less!) will be removed.
_____
Advice On Making Your Campaign Go Further
Not all crowdfunding campaigns are the same, but here are some suggestions.
_____
Questions?
Please don't hesitate to [ask the mods](https://www.reddit.com/message/compose?to=%2Fr%2Fgofundme)!

... Unless you're trying to ask for an exception to the account requirements.
submitted by ultradip to gofundme [link] [comments]


2020.10.24 20:53 tiredpandax3 Could TXT Soobin become the "it boy" in stead of Yeonjun?

I know that none of them is close to being the "it boy" or whatsoever. But here's just what I thought of after seeing this video. And if I didn't get the definition of "it boy" wrong, it doesn't refer to the most all-rounded or talented member of the group, but actually the member who could capture public's attention and is being loved by the whole of Korea regardless of age/gender. A while ago, there was a stupid argument between moas and atiny on twitter (which wasn't very big imo since I only found out about it through reddit) about who is more worthy of the title "4th gen it boy", Yeonjun vs San. Because Yeonjun was the most outstanding member in terms of stage presence and charisma and for most people that don't stan TXT, they would at least know who Yeonjun is if they ever watched their videos before. So it's no wonder why moas think that if anybody could be the next "it boy", it would be Yeonjun.
But after watching that video, I was thinking maybe Soobin could have more potential to be the next "it boy" rather than Yeonjun. Ever since Soobin became an MC in Music Bank, there has been a rise of his popularity, and while it's not a very dramatic rise, I noticed a lot of new stans coming in because they saw his Dolphin cover and got charmed by him. And in that video, most of the Korean teenagers picked Soobin because they saw him on Music Bank and found him charming, and a lot of them weren't even fans. This kind of reminded me of Cha Eun Woo, who got famous through his dramas and became the "it boy" of Korea. I know that Soobin will obviously not become the "it boy" just because he's an MC in Music Bank, but being the MC gave him a lot of exposure and a lot of attention from different people. Soobin is always one of the most popular member of TXT but it seems that every week there are more and more new fans who noticed him and found him adorable/charming through his MC role. That made me realize that Soobin is actually pretty good at capturing people's attention and his personality makes him even more lovely. I showed my friend a video of TXT and even she told me she likes Soobin the most. And compared to all the other members, Soobin's face is the most loved visual in Korea right now. If BH actually decides to send Soobin to act in a drama, then Soobin will probably rise and become the next "it boy" if said drama did well.
Edit: I'm kind of tired to keep saying the same thing to multiple people, I guess I shouldn't use the title it-boy in my post but my point of the post is not really about the title. But more of being the Nation-loved idol and it boy is the only term I could think of that's related to it. I'm not even trying to push or say Soobin is the most popular idol in Korea, I know he's not (and that neither of the TXT members is). I'm just saying that I see the potential in him due to the love and exposure he's been getting from non-fans ever since becoming a Music Bank MC. I'm not trying to say who deserves the title more or will definitely get the title either, please don't twist my words.
submitted by tiredpandax3 to kpopthoughts [link] [comments]


2020.10.24 20:10 benitoak Left the RD world

First off, I apologize in advance for this lengthy post. Feel free to scroll past if this doesn’t resonate with you. Things have been extremely emotionally difficult for me the past two months and I need an outlet.
I made a post a few weeks ago about my DI experience and the severe depression and anxiety I was spiraling into because of how much I hated the program I was in. My program wasn’t competitive but the placement I was put in was and I dealt with preceptors who were snarky grilling me with MNT questions that I truthfully did not know or care to learn about. It manifested into physical symptoms - sleepless nights, barely eating 500 cals/day, thoughts of not wanting to be alive so I didn’t have to experience another day as an intern, hair loss, rash outbreaks, and weeping sessions and breakdowns at the internship site. I had a therapist and even that wasn’t helping enough. He suggested that I leave the program to which I responded with utter disbelief and a hard no, convinced that that was NOT a viable option or even an option period. But he made a statement that truly opened my eyes - if I stuck around and pushed myself beyond the limits of what I wanted, I would’ve been a train wreck by the end of it all and god knows how long it would take me to recover from the trauma.
Over the years, I grew a huge aversion for this field due to the suffering I had to endure to get to the internship and the genuine disinterest I had when nutrition-related topics were brought up and that feeling of my heart dropping to my stomach if anyone asked me a nutrition question. Honestly, I only pushed myself to pursue this pathway because throughout the entire education process, the RD path and the traditional roles were heavily pushed upon us and anything that was less than or non-RD, seemed to be frowned upon. I had no intentions of utilizing the credentials once I passed the exam. I simply wanted the credentials just to have them and was contemplating day in and day out whether it was even worth it to put myself through misery just to have something I wouldn’t use.
Well, fast forward to present day. I withdrew from the program because I felt it drove me over the edge. I’m still sulking in guilt at the fact I took a spot from someone who really wanted it and all the money and time that was invested to get to this point. I feel like this will haunt me for the rest of my life. I feel like an ultimate failure - to myself and to all the people who helped me to get to this point in my life. I’m not sure where to go from here or how to cope with these terrible thoughts. I like talking about food. I’m passionate about sustainability and farms/gardening, and getting in touch with nature. I care about where my food comes from and how it affects people, society, and the environment.
The bright side is I was just able to land a non-RD job at a nonprofit organization helping refugees and immigrants acclimate to America and one of their larger programs partners with local retailers to provide them with nutritious meals. So in a way, I am definitely still utilizing my knowledge from school and I know this will be so rewarding. I’m also considering transitioning into a business career within the natural food sector and can’t help but feel like having the RD would be an asset. However, the thought of having to go through an internship program again actually makes me sick.
For those of you who transitioned out of the RD world, have a job that doesn’t require the credentials or never ended up pursuing the RD pathway, what do you do now and are you happy in your position? Any regrets? Advice? Thank you so much.
submitted by benitoak to dietetics [link] [comments]


2020.10.24 19:53 JcSimba Is online school influencing some students to cheat? How can colleges/professors handle it while making it far if or everyone?

This was something some people in my class were discussing, and I’ve realized after interacting with many people.This isn’t to say I accept cheating or I cheat, but I’m interested since my teachers have made things harder to stop cheating.
Depending on if your school has a proctoring system or not, it can be extremely easy for students to cheat in online school. If you’re school has no proctoring system, you can literally just google during the tests or look at notes.
And besides academic honesty, many students probably see no reason not to. For one, the pandemic and online school is definitely taking a mental toll on some people so to take the pressure off they may cheat. Second, if you’re taking non major related classes, since the class doesn’t affect your main studies some students can just see it as another way to pad their gpa and not do work. There’s nothing stopping students from, again, googling during a test, and not preparing for any test, and there is no effects because they don’t need the class long term.
Third, which I’ve been hearing a lot from other students, is the people who would otherwise get good grades without cheating padding a few questions to improve their gpa. This turns a 85 student into a 93 student, and you can argue that since they are actually a 85 students they’re not losing anything long term (knowledge wise). This could even be for major classes.
So, some of my teachers have been making some test unbearably hard, to make it harder on cheaters. This becomes a major problem when overall grades are relative or curve based. Because if I get a 75 on an extremely hard test, but majority got an 85 through cheating , that means I get a c or something like that. I don’t really care outside of these type of classes because someone else cheating doesn’t affect me, but when there’s curve or relative grades it pisses me off since my grade depends on everyone else.
How can they hinder cheating without hurting everyone else. Should they just accept that cheating is open to online school if you don’t have a proctoring system?
submitted by JcSimba to college [link] [comments]


2020.10.24 18:26 Healthisway The future direction of therapy and motivation psychology (research)

Transcendence as levels of human motivation:
A Humanistic Research into Psychology
Joseph Ramey
Abstract
This paper expands the practice of psychotherapy to include transcendence as an achievable motivational goal. In this research, participants were interviewed on their experiences of transcendence using the “Grounded Theory” (David L. Rennie, 1994) as the primary method. 100 of the interviews were reviewed and analyzed through recorded tapes and showed transcendence to exist with differing degrees as motivational levels above self actualization. Healthy transcendence also showed to produce moments of self actualization which lead back to moments of transcendence. Unhealthy transcendence showed to be damaging to the self and even preventive of self actualization. Combining my own personal experiences and research, the personal experiences of people I have encountered, and supporting documents from scientific textbooks, journals, and articles, I have put together what I will call the theory of transcendence.
Keywords: theory of transcendence, motivation, transcendence, transcendent motivation, transcendence of self, transcendence of life, transcendence of the cosmos, self complex, life complex, cosmic complex Introduction
 Abraham Maslow defines transcendence in his book The Farther Reaches of Human Nature, as “The very highest and most inclusive or holistic levels of human consciousness, behaving and relating, as ends rather than means, to oneself, to significant others, to human beings in general, to other species, to nature, and to the cosmos” (Maslow 269). Transcendence is the healthiest conscious and unconscious state of mind not only for the individual experiencing it but also for the environment that is affected by the individual. While Maslow captured an overall perspective of the phenomena, his definition does not provide detail of transcendence as levels of human motivation. From a philosophical understanding, since the transformation of energy through the actions and reactions of an individual can be traced back to sources of conscious and unconscious motivation (Maslow, Abraham H. 1993), actions and reactions inspired by transcendent perspectives must also derive from sources of conscious and unconscious motivation. Therefore, transcendent levels of motivation must exist. Through my own observations and research, I have perceived 3 major degrees to which the transformation of energy through transcendent motivation can vary; transcendence of self, transcendence of life, and transcendenceiy of the cosmos. Each level is defined and limited by their own general complex that serves as a need or deficiency preventing motivational elevation. 
Method To study this phenomena I applied the “Grounded Theory” (David L. Rennie, 1994). As recommended to me by my psychologist who I spoke with during the process of creating this theory. To use the grounded theory’s research method, I interviewed 100 individuals on transcending topics and used their subjective experiences as explicit data to directly describe and explain the phenomena being studied. As a control, I maintained the same 4 questions when interviewing individuals. I had to use 4 different questions because sometimes the individuals could not understand my first questions enough to recall a specific moment of transcendence unless I restructured my wording. The questions were asked in following order (according to whether or not the individual understood the previous question or continued to respond to the restructured questions) Have you ever felt larger than yourself? Have you ever felt like you could identify with something larger or greater than yourself? Have you ever felt more than yourself? Have you ever felt like you could identify with something more than yourself?
These levels of transcendence are not concrete, like Abraham Maslow’s levels of hierarchical motivation, an individual can move fluidly through them. Similar to self actualization, any level of transcendence can be experienced at any motivational level. Although, the intensity and frequency of transcending moments increases with higher motivational achievement within the individual.
Findings Transcendence of Self The first and lowest motivational level of transcendence is transcendence of self. Transcendence of self occurs, within an individual, most often after they have already experienced moments of self actualization. To already have a preconceived awareness of the self (including it’s potentials and limitations) is essential to being able to transcend it. It is only the perception of an individual’s self in relation to any given idea that is ever transcended.
 Experiencing transcendence of self comes from shift in perspective allowing an individual to perceive a more inclusive conception of them self. For example, one may have an out of body experience and perceive transcendence of their physical limitations. Or one may succeed at a seemingly impossible task and perceive the transcendence of their capabilities. Transcendence of self is defined and limited by the Self complex. The frequency and degree of transcendence of self is positively correlated with “self complexity”,i.e one’s knowledge of themselves. (Linville P. W., 1985,). Therefore, the understanding that knowledge of one’s self is continuously learned and that the perception of the self is continuously evolving through ones connection with themself is the “self complex”. The Self complex does not have to be consciously understood in its explicit form for transcendence of self to be experienced. It may be inferred or understood unconsciously. 
Experiencing Transcendence can lead individuals to identify themselves with internal values or even external representations of such internal values. For example, one may identify themselves with beauty, wisdom, justice, honor, etc. Moments of transcendence may also lead individuals to identifying themselves with more inclusive entities that don’t necessarily represent internal values, such as life or humanity.
Transcendence of Life Transcendence of life is the second motivational level of transcendence. Because one must theoretically satisfy the needs of the lower levels of motivation in order to maintain conscious or unconscious motivation at the higher levels (Maslow, A.H.,1993), characteristics of transcendence of the self are not only present in the higher levels of transcendence but also serve as some of the building blocks allowing for the perception of the higher levels.
Experiencing transcendence of life comes from shift in perception allowing an individual to perceive a more inclusive conception of themselves within and among the collective living, lived, and to be lived. For example, one may transcend the we/they dichotomy, allowing them to perceive and identify with the unity of life itself. By identifying with life and transformation of energy that contributes to or unfortunately, hinder life, the self and the perceived opposition dissolve into a more inclusive perspective of how ever the self then chooses to express its identity.
Transcendence of life is defined and limited by the “life complex”. The understanding that knowledge of the self is continuously learned through one’s connection with life is the “life complex”. One must perceive transcendence of life through the inclusive perception of the self or else it is only observation of external stimuli. The life complex does not have to be consciously understood in its explicit form for transcendence of life to be experienced. It may be inferred or understood unconsciously.
In this level of motivation, one may identify themselves with the entirety of life or even the life that they themselves are able to give and take. Individuals may also identify with collective concepts such as culture, species, gender, team, etc.. Carl Jung expresses transcendence of life with his observations of the collective unconscious. “I have chosen the term ‘collective’ because this part of the unconscious is not individual but universal, in contrast to the personal psyche, it has its contents and modes of behaviour that are more or less the same everywhere and in all individuals” (Jung, 2014). Jung’s perception of an existence of a collective unconscious is transcendent of life because his own identity and role within collective life is dissolved into the larger picture.
Transcendence of the Cosmos Transcendence of the cosmos is the final level of transcendence. It is the most inclusive motivational level, holding characteristics of all of the previous levels.
Experiencing Transcendence of the cosmos comes from shift in perspective allowing an individual to perceive a more inclusive conception of them self in relation to anything living or nonliving. This can come from observing one’s self within the broadest perspective and also the most specific perspective. For example, when learning about the biology of humans or observing behaviors of mine that are unique to me, I feel an inseparable connection with all of the components that make it possible for me to observe myself from these perspectives. Whether it be from a felt connection with chemistry or the subtle balance of psychological nature I get the very same feeling when observing myself within the context of our solar cluster or the cycle of existence and relative non existence. Osho Krishna gives an amazing description of his experience of Transcendence to this degree. “Just below the collective unconscious lies the world of the cosmic unconscious. You arrive there via the collective unconscious;and once you are connected with the cosmic unconscious your awareness undergoes a complete mutation. Then you cease to feel that you are a part of the whole, rather you know that you and the whole are one – you are not a part of the total but you are totality itself.” (Osho, Krishna: The Man and his Philosophy, Ch 14). Krishna loss of identity through his connection to the larger existence of the cosmos is transcendence of the cosmos.
The understanding that knowledge of the self is continuously learned through ones connection with anything (living or nonliving) is the “Cosmic complex”
In this level of motivation one may identify with the entirety of the cosmos or even with any perceived cosmic forces such as god or energy. In Cosmic Consciousness, by Richard Maurice Bucke, the experience of “Cosmic Consciousness” by the biblical Paul is explained as “ he knew that Jesus had possessed the cosmic sense and that he was living (as it were) the life of Jesus - that another individuality, another self, lived in him. This second self he called Christ (the divinely sent deliverer), identifying it not so much with the man Jesus, as with the deliverer which was to be sent and which had been sent in his person, who was both Jesus (the ordinary self conscious man) and Messiah (the herald or exemplar of the new, higher race)” (Bucke, 1998). Through his religious connection with the purpose of Jesus and not necessarily the human that took his form Paul transcends himself to a cosmic degree. This level of transcendence holds the most dramatic experience of unity. 
Additional Observations Rooting their sources of motivation to transcendent concepts, individuals create moments that are essential to their self perception. When recalled, moments of transcendence also serve as moments of self actualization because the actions and reactions produced by transcendence fulfill and may even overfill the individuals perception of them self. It’s worth noting that as transcendence leads back to self actualization a cycle of fulfillment is born where the perception of the self is continuously expanding to meet its perceived potentials and then transcended to allow for increased perception of potentials.
Also glimpses of transcending moments seem to be the guiding experiences that lead an individual to perceive the specific information needed for them to satisfy their current motivational needs and proceed to higher levels. During the reports of transcendence by individuals who have not yet reached the ability to maintain self actualization, the moment itself was the realization of what kept them motivationally stuck. For example when asked has he ever felt more than himself one participant reported his experience of finding out that it is not healthy for him to project himself as egotistically larger than other individuals. This idea is motivated by self transcendence because this specific individual overcame his own perception.
Transcendence has also been shown to be able to move individuals down the motivational pyramid. In these instances transcendence is generally used maliciously as a form of persuasion. For example when asked about recollection of transcendence, one individual reported his experience in military boot camp. The instructors trained the soldiers to forget aspects of themselves in order to identify with and carry out intentions of the state. By using life transcending concepts the drill sergeants purposefully block or restrict self actualization. Dehumanization is accomplished through transcendence.
It could be argued that military training could be beneficial to the individual if the intent was to solely defend. For example, ancient martial arts commonly require a deep connection with the energy of the universe or Qi. And through this connection they learn to only use harmful force if it’s necessary to defend themselves. However, in this specific military organization seeking and killing potential threats has been practiced and trained for. There is a large difference because through teaching of Qi one must become perceptive of how one affects the energy around them both positively or negatively. The recognition of the transformation of energy through the world around you is a complex form of empathy and could be described as moments of healthy transcendence. Through the teaching of killing one is not required to be so aware. There is a definite lack of empathy in the forced nature of transcendence in the military that was described to me by the individual in my research. Mostly through dehumanization.
Application of the Theory Freud states in his theories of unconscious perception (interpretation of dreams, Freud), that as the perception of the self becomes healthier so does the health of his general perception. As the degree of transcendence that an individual experiences increases, so does their awareness of their environment. The individual who is able to see the universe within themselves becomes more perceptive of the universe within their surroundings. Like a flower for example. Personally, the fractals within the stamen of flowers have put me in a state of awe allowing me to perceive the connectedness of the universe. I’ve also had conversations with people who explained to me their ability to perceive the wholeness of the universe through watching waves crash.
Summary Transcendence produces a more complete perception of the self as previously unconscious aspects of the self are discovered and added inclusively. The degree to which the perception of the self transcends varies. Transcendence of self is the lowest level of transcendence and is defined and limited by the self complex. Transcendence of life is the next degree of transcendence and is defined and limited by the life complex. Transcendence of cosmos is the final level of transcendence defined by the cosmic complex. Ultimately transcendence expands one’s knowledge of themselves. After transcendence motivationally comes moments of self actualization where the individual adjusts his/her perception of themself in order to account for the newfound knowledge learned through transcendence.
Conclusion If transcendence is applied to modern techniques of psychotherapy as achievable levels of motivation, we can extend the goals of the individual seeking help past self actualization to transcendence. Through widespread transcendence we can begin building communities that no longer seek self interest but perpetuate life and health wherever it’s influence reaches.
References
Bucke, Richard Maurice. (1998) Cosmic Consciousness: a Study in the Evolution of the Human Mind. Kessinger Pub.,
Freud, Sigmund. (2016). and A. A. Brill. The Interpretation of Dreams. FAB.
Jung, C. G. (2014). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. Routledge.
Linville, P. W. (1985). Self Complexity and Affective Extremity, Social Cognition Vol. 3, pg 94-120.
Maslow, Abraham H. (1993). The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. Arkana.
Osho, Krishna. (2006). The Man and His Philosophy. Jaico Pub. House.
Rennie, David L. (1994). Storytelling in psychotherapy. York university.
submitted by Healthisway to therapy [link] [comments]


2020.10.24 18:16 Healthisway The future direction of therapy and motivation psychology (research)

Transcendence as levels of human motivation:
A Humanistic Research into Psychology
Joseph Ramey
Abstract
This paper expands the practice of psychotherapy to include transcendence as an achievable motivational goal. In this research, participants were interviewed on their experiences of transcendence using the “Grounded Theory” (David L. Rennie, 1994) as the primary method. 100 of the interviews were reviewed and analyzed through recorded tapes and showed transcendence to exist with differing degrees as motivational levels above self actualization. Healthy transcendence also showed to produce moments of self actualization which lead back to moments of transcendence. Unhealthy transcendence showed to be damaging to the self and even preventive of self actualization. Combining my own personal experiences and research, the personal experiences of people I have encountered, and supporting documents from scientific textbooks, journals, and articles, I have put together what I will call the theory of transcendence.
Keywords: theory of transcendence, motivation, transcendence, transcendent motivation, transcendence of self, transcendence of life, transcendence of the cosmos, self complex, life complex, cosmic complex Introduction
 Abraham Maslow defines transcendence in his book The Farther Reaches of Human Nature, as “The very highest and most inclusive or holistic levels of human consciousness, behaving and relating, as ends rather than means, to oneself, to significant others, to human beings in general, to other species, to nature, and to the cosmos” (Maslow 269). Transcendence is the healthiest conscious and unconscious state of mind not only for the individual experiencing it but also for the environment that is affected by the individual. While Maslow captured an overall perspective of the phenomena, his definition does not provide detail of transcendence as levels of human motivation. From a philosophical understanding, since the transformation of energy through the actions and reactions of an individual can be traced back to sources of conscious and unconscious motivation (Maslow, Abraham H. 1993), actions and reactions inspired by transcendent perspectives must also derive from sources of conscious and unconscious motivation. Therefore, transcendent levels of motivation must exist. Through my own observations and research, I have perceived 3 major degrees to which the transformation of energy through transcendent motivation can vary; transcendence of self, transcendence of life, and transcendenceiy of the cosmos. Each level is defined and limited by their own general complex that serves as a need or deficiency preventing motivational elevation. 
Method To study this phenomena I applied the “Grounded Theory” (David L. Rennie, 1994). As recommended to me by my psychologist who I spoke with during the process of creating this theory. To use the grounded theory’s research method, I interviewed 100 individuals on transcending topics and used their subjective experiences as explicit data to directly describe and explain the phenomena being studied. As a control, I maintained the same 4 questions when interviewing individuals. I had to use 4 different questions because sometimes the individuals could not understand my first questions enough to recall a specific moment of transcendence unless I restructured my wording. The questions were asked in following order (according to whether or not the individual understood the previous question or continued to respond to the restructured questions) Have you ever felt larger than yourself? Have you ever felt like you could identify with something larger or greater than yourself? Have you ever felt more than yourself? Have you ever felt like you could identify with something more than yourself?
These levels of transcendence are not concrete, like Abraham Maslow’s levels of hierarchical motivation, an individual can move fluidly through them. Similar to self actualization, any level of transcendence can be experienced at any motivational level. Although, the intensity and frequency of transcending moments increases with higher motivational achievement within the individual.
Findings Transcendence of Self The first and lowest motivational level of transcendence is transcendence of self. Transcendence of self occurs, within an individual, most often after they have already experienced moments of self actualization. To already have a preconceived awareness of the self (including it’s potentials and limitations) is essential to being able to transcend it. It is only the perception of an individual’s self in relation to any given idea that is ever transcended.
 Experiencing transcendence of self comes from shift in perspective allowing an individual to perceive a more inclusive conception of them self. For example, one may have an out of body experience and perceive transcendence of their physical limitations. Or one may succeed at a seemingly impossible task and perceive the transcendence of their capabilities. Transcendence of self is defined and limited by the Self complex. The frequency and degree of transcendence of self is positively correlated with “self complexity”,i.e one’s knowledge of themselves. (Linville P. W., 1985,). Therefore, the understanding that knowledge of one’s self is continuously learned and that the perception of the self is continuously evolving through ones connection with themself is the “self complex”. The Self complex does not have to be consciously understood in its explicit form for transcendence of self to be experienced. It may be inferred or understood unconsciously. 
Experiencing Transcendence can lead individuals to identify themselves with internal values or even external representations of such internal values. For example, one may identify themselves with beauty, wisdom, justice, honor, etc. Moments of transcendence may also lead individuals to identifying themselves with more inclusive entities that don’t necessarily represent internal values, such as life or humanity.
Transcendence of Life Transcendence of life is the second motivational level of transcendence. Because one must theoretically satisfy the needs of the lower levels of motivation in order to maintain conscious or unconscious motivation at the higher levels (Maslow, A.H.,1993), characteristics of transcendence of the self are not only present in the higher levels of transcendence but also serve as some of the building blocks allowing for the perception of the higher levels.
Experiencing transcendence of life comes from shift in perception allowing an individual to perceive a more inclusive conception of themselves within and among the collective living, lived, and to be lived. For example, one may transcend the we/they dichotomy, allowing them to perceive and identify with the unity of life itself. By identifying with life and transformation of energy that contributes to or unfortunately, hinder life, the self and the perceived opposition dissolve into a more inclusive perspective of how ever the self then chooses to express its identity.
Transcendence of life is defined and limited by the “life complex”. The understanding that knowledge of the self is continuously learned through one’s connection with life is the “life complex”. One must perceive transcendence of life through the inclusive perception of the self or else it is only observation of external stimuli. The life complex does not have to be consciously understood in its explicit form for transcendence of life to be experienced. It may be inferred or understood unconsciously.
In this level of motivation, one may identify themselves with the entirety of life or even the life that they themselves are able to give and take. Individuals may also identify with collective concepts such as culture, species, gender, team, etc.. Carl Jung expresses transcendence of life with his observations of the collective unconscious. “I have chosen the term ‘collective’ because this part of the unconscious is not individual but universal, in contrast to the personal psyche, it has its contents and modes of behaviour that are more or less the same everywhere and in all individuals” (Jung, 2014). Jung’s perception of an existence of a collective unconscious is transcendent of life because his own identity and role within collective life is dissolved into the larger picture.
Transcendence of the Cosmos Transcendence of the cosmos is the final level of transcendence. It is the most inclusive motivational level, holding characteristics of all of the previous levels.
Experiencing Transcendence of the cosmos comes from shift in perspective allowing an individual to perceive a more inclusive conception of them self in relation to anything living or nonliving. This can come from observing one’s self within the broadest perspective and also the most specific perspective. For example, when learning about the biology of humans or observing behaviors of mine that are unique to me, I feel an inseparable connection with all of the components that make it possible for me to observe myself from these perspectives. Whether it be from a felt connection with chemistry or the subtle balance of psychological nature I get the very same feeling when observing myself within the context of our solar cluster or the cycle of existence and relative non existence. Osho Krishna gives an amazing description of his experience of Transcendence to this degree. “Just below the collective unconscious lies the world of the cosmic unconscious. You arrive there via the collective unconscious;and once you are connected with the cosmic unconscious your awareness undergoes a complete mutation. Then you cease to feel that you are a part of the whole, rather you know that you and the whole are one – you are not a part of the total but you are totality itself.” (Osho, Krishna: The Man and his Philosophy, Ch 14). Krishna loss of identity through his connection to the larger existence of the cosmos is transcendence of the cosmos.
The understanding that knowledge of the self is continuously learned through ones connection with anything (living or nonliving) is the “Cosmic complex”
In this level of motivation one may identify with the entirety of the cosmos or even with any perceived cosmic forces such as god or energy. In Cosmic Consciousness, by Richard Maurice Bucke, the experience of “Cosmic Consciousness” by the biblical Paul is explained as “ he knew that Jesus had possessed the cosmic sense and that he was living (as it were) the life of Jesus - that another individuality, another self, lived in him. This second self he called Christ (the divinely sent deliverer), identifying it not so much with the man Jesus, as with the deliverer which was to be sent and which had been sent in his person, who was both Jesus (the ordinary self conscious man) and Messiah (the herald or exemplar of the new, higher race)” (Bucke, 1998). Through his religious connection with the purpose of Jesus and not necessarily the human that took his form Paul transcends himself to a cosmic degree. This level of transcendence holds the most dramatic experience of unity. 
Additional Observations Rooting their sources of motivation to transcendent concepts, individuals create moments that are essential to their self perception. When recalled, moments of transcendence also serve as moments of self actualization because the actions and reactions produced by transcendence fulfill and may even overfill the individuals perception of them self. It’s worth noting that as transcendence leads back to self actualization a cycle of fulfillment is born where the perception of the self is continuously expanding to meet its perceived potentials and then transcended to allow for increased perception of potentials.
Also glimpses of transcending moments seem to be the guiding experiences that lead an individual to perceive the specific information needed for them to satisfy their current motivational needs and proceed to higher levels. During the reports of transcendence by individuals who have not yet reached the ability to maintain self actualization, the moment itself was the realization of what kept them motivationally stuck. For example when asked has he ever felt more than himself one participant reported his experience of finding out that it is not healthy for him to project himself as egotistically larger than other individuals. This idea is motivated by self transcendence because this specific individual overcame his own perception.
Transcendence has also been shown to be able to move individuals down the motivational pyramid. In these instances transcendence is generally used maliciously as a form of persuasion. For example when asked about recollection of transcendence, one individual reported his experience in military boot camp. The instructors trained the soldiers to forget aspects of themselves in order to identify with and carry out intentions of the state. By using life transcending concepts the drill sergeants purposefully block or restrict self actualization. Dehumanization is accomplished through transcendence.
It could be argued that military training could be beneficial to the individual if the intent was to solely defend. For example, ancient martial arts commonly require a deep connection with the energy of the universe or Qi. And through this connection they learn to only use harmful force if it’s necessary to defend themselves. However, in this specific military organization seeking and killing potential threats has been practiced and trained for. There is a large difference because through teaching of Qi one must become perceptive of how one affects the energy around them both positively or negatively. The recognition of the transformation of energy through the world around you is a complex form of empathy and could be described as moments of healthy transcendence. Through the teaching of killing one is not required to be so aware. There is a definite lack of empathy in the forced nature of transcendence in the military that was described to me by the individual in my research. Mostly through dehumanization.
Application of the Theory Freud states in his theories of unconscious perception (interpretation of dreams, Freud), that as the perception of the self becomes healthier so does the health of his general perception. As the degree of transcendence that an individual experiences increases, so does their awareness of their environment. The individual who is able to see the universe within themselves becomes more perceptive of the universe within their surroundings. Like a flower for example. Personally, the fractals within the stamen of flowers have put me in a state of awe allowing me to perceive the connectedness of the universe. I’ve also had conversations with people who explained to me their ability to perceive the wholeness of the universe through watching waves crash.
Summary Transcendence produces a more complete perception of the self as previously unconscious aspects of the self are discovered and added inclusively. The degree to which the perception of the self transcends varies. Transcendence of self is the lowest level of transcendence and is defined and limited by the self complex. Transcendence of life is the next degree of transcendence and is defined and limited by the life complex. Transcendence of cosmos is the final level of transcendence defined by the cosmic complex. Ultimately transcendence expands one’s knowledge of themselves. After transcendence motivationally comes moments of self actualization where the individual adjusts his/her perception of themself in order to account for the newfound knowledge learned through transcendence.
Conclusion If transcendence is applied to modern techniques of psychotherapy as achievable levels of motivation, we can extend the goals of the individual seeking help past self actualization to transcendence. Through widespread transcendence we can begin building communities that no longer seek self interest but perpetuate life and health wherever it’s influence reaches.
References
Bucke, Richard Maurice. (1998) Cosmic Consciousness: a Study in the Evolution of the Human Mind. Kessinger Pub.,
Freud, Sigmund. (2016). and A. A. Brill. The Interpretation of Dreams. FAB.
Jung, C. G. (2014). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. Routledge.
Linville, P. W. (1985). Self Complexity and Affective Extremity, Social Cognition Vol. 3, pg 94-120.
Maslow, Abraham H. (1993). The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. Arkana.
Osho, Krishna. (2006). The Man and His Philosophy. Jaico Pub. House.
Rennie, David L. (1994). Storytelling in psychotherapy. York university.
submitted by Healthisway to Futurology [link] [comments]


2020.10.24 17:36 sperrific Yes, jobs are out there. Yes, CompTIA certs can help you get one.

I'm not a regular poster, but this is the kind of post I would want to read in my situation, so I hope it helps someone.
I was furloughed from my job because of the COVID insanity back in March, officially laid off in June. Was general IT support/help desk at my old employer, both in-office and remote support. The particulars of my job were somewhat unique in that I had to be 100% self-taught/motivated for the work I did, on top of juggling my other non-IT work responsibilities. I've been applying for jobs since April, regularly, on average of 5-10 jobs a week since then. Work/live in the Southeastern US.
I had no certs as of being laid off. To help boost my resume, I took A+ 1001 and 1002 in June after studying for ~2 weeks, passed both on the first attempt—since A+ directly corresponded with my old job, I felt confident enough to cram. Had numerous call-backs for jobs, several interviews and follow-ups, no offers. Decided to boost my prospects by going for Network+. Took the test in late August, failed. Took another week for additional studying/memorization, passed in the following month.
All this time, I continue to apply to any job I believe that I can reasonably perform at, and more than a few that I can't, because shoot for the moon, miss 100% of shots not taken, you get the idea. I only received a job offer yesterday—7 months since furlough, 4 months since being laid off. Personally, this is the second-longest time I've been out of work, and definitely the longest with a spouse and kids at home.
Now, brass tacks: the post title says that a CompTIA cert can help you get a job. I know that's true because, on top of the years of experience at my old job, the manager who just hired me pointed out in the second interview that a Network+ cert is something they were looking for, and I had it. Maybe I had more work experience than the other guy, but having the certification certainly didn't hurt.
I've seen folks sometimes say in this or other IT-related subreddits that CompTIA certs are overpriced and not worth the money. That may be true, but I'm real proof that, in my case, paying for the tests got me a job.
To anyone out there still struggling, still looking for work, still studying and test-taking: keep at it. There's light at the end of your tunnel, somewhere. Here's hoping you find it soon.
(And because it has to be said: this is just one person's opinion. YMMV. Best of luck.)
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2020.10.24 10:46 Throwawayputtyfairy Waiting for EEG and MRI, seizures suspected. Does anyone else lose function in hands and feet temporarily, and feel like they've taken a bunch of drugs when they have not? Not sure what to do here.

Hi there. I'm on a waiting list for EEG and MRI as I had a psychiatrist worry about partial temporal lobe seizures due to smell hallucinations lasting a few mins each time. After a long waiting list I spoke to a neurologist, who ended up even more worried than the psych, and added more tests on top (only EEG was planned initially). I have a whole load of weird symptoms, and one of my parents had epilepsy as well as a cousin. I do not get the grand mal seizures.
I've developed new symptoms in the few weeks since I spoke to neurologist - my arms and hands (elbow down) will kind of stop working, they go partially numb and tingly, and I can't really use them, they won't bend properly and I have very little strength to hold anything. It can be just one at a time, or both. Also sometimes my left leg and foot (from knee down) will do the same. I also sometimes feel like I've taken a whole pile of codeine, even though I have not. Fuzzy, dizzy, unsteady and just very uncomfortable. The drugged up feeling only lasts maybe 5-10 minutes usually, but the hand/foot issue can last 30+ minutes. Last night I had 3 limbs out of action and had the weird feeling too.
I don't think I'm able to speak to the neurologist again urgently - waiting for her to write a letter about a blood test she sorted for me for now, and on list for EEG and MRI. My partner (not nearby) has asked that I call non-emergency helpline (in UK) if it happens again, as it's definitely not normal. I have anxiety and my Dr usually dismiss all symptoms I have to be just anxiety. It should be mentioned I don't usually have health related anxiety - it's just there really is something wrong. My anxiety is about other stuff, though of course now I am worried because there does seem to be something wrong neurologically, that pre-dates when I started being very anxious.
So, I guess if anyone has any idea what I should do here? Just leave it alone?
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2020.10.24 10:28 BlueDaisy62 Am I The Asshole Roommate? (My roommate from hell) (Grab some snackkies this is kinda long)

Back in July of 2019 I started a new job. I was in a long term 4 year relationship, and living with his mom (we had our own house but moved in with his mom to 1)save money to buy a house but 2) his dad and little sister needed a place to live so we let them have that place)
when I started this new job i met a group of people who basically helped me realize how toxic of a relationship I was in and the potential happiness I could have else wise. I also met another guy who, in all honesty, I fell in love with.
No I didn't cheat or anything, but I knew for a long time that I wasn't in love with the high-school sweetheart and that there were so many warning signs that I should have left sooner (he constantly screamed at me and made me feel worthless, I felt like I was there just for him to say he had a girlfriend and have sex, he gamed 24/7 and constantly chose his games over hanging out with me or even taking care of his health)
these friends (let's call them friend A and friend B) gave me what I needed most in that time: a place to stay if I broke up with him.
I took that opportunity and broke it off, staying at their place for a day and then deciding with them the next day that I would sublet from them, splitting ret and utilities 5 ways. (It was a three bedroom house, and it was friend As sister and her that lived there, but her mom eventually moved in and for some reason friend A and friend B decided even though they were not living there , they would continue to pay 2/5 of rent to try to help out their family.)
I had 4 dogs and 3 guinea pigs with my ex. I only took the two dogs that were technically mine.
Moving in i didn't have a bed or any furniture besides my desk pc and TV, they allowed me to use their bed. The people in the house didn't particularly like dogs either so they would be stuck in my room 24/7 unless I took them out for walks. ( the back yard was occupied by friend As dog and wasn't dog friendly so I couldn't put my pups out there) I work 12 hour night shifts 3-4 days a week.
Anyways, because it wasn't my bed and the housemates didn't like dogs, I ultimately had to crate my pups 24/7 except for 2 walks a day (one before I left for work one after I got home.) This was an extremely stressful situation for the dogs and ultimately they started having explosive and bloody diarrhea 2-3 times a day.
The only solution I could think of at the time was to keep them in the bathroom some days so that I didn't have to keep steam cleaning the carpet around the crate as well as easier clean up (the bathroom was tile) and not having to get even more shit on the carpet having to take them to the bathtub. (I have a bordercollie and a jack chi)
This living situation was pretty shit and was even worse for friend As mom who had to share a bathroom with me and would often express how upset she was about the dogs being in there. I made a decision in January 2020 to try to find better living arrangements, as nice as it was having lower rent costs.
Which brings me to the actual "Am I the shit roomate?" Story.
There was another coworker who I ultimately befriended. Looking back it was a fairly toxic friendship. I made a few bad jokes/said things that she took out of context and we joked about, but then she would introduce me to new coworkers like that: " oh hey! Have you met (me) yet? Yeah she called me a *****" it eventually got to the point where people i hadn't even met would say oh right! You're the one who said "xyz"
Anyhow, I had vented alot of my frustrations to her about my ex and current living situation. we became, in her mind, best friends; and in a way I just accepted that. Though I don't think I ever felt as strongly connected to her as she did to me. I was really more interested in being best friends with Friend A because they had helped me so much and I was so grateful, but I appreciated this coworker and trusted her (well just call her roomie for the sake of later)
Roomie was new here and moved from Guam to live with her sister about 2 years back. During DecembeJanuary she started fighting with said sister and was looking for a place to move to.
I originally denied the idea because I was content with living at Friend A and Friend Bs place, however when the dogs conditions started to degrade I knew I needed to find a new place asap, so I ultimately said sure, let's find a place together.
We found a nice 2 bed 2 bath apartment, 3rd floor. My only condition with living with her was that the dogs were allowed to be out and about and not locked in the cage. She agreed 100%. We moved in end of February 2020 signing a 14 month lease.
For the first few weeks I kept the dogs caged while I was at work because they were having issues pooping and peeing on the carpet. I invested in one of those porch potties so that they could just go out and do their business on the porch instead of having to hold it for 12 hours and three flights of stairs. (This would ultimately become a problem)
Move in costs were a bit higher than I had excepted and I hadn't exactly been planning on moving out so soon so I only had maybe 2 weeks worth of paychecks saved and my tax return. I used all of it on downpayment and first months rent and still ended up owing her around 600$ which she said was fine and to just pay her back when I could, but not to worry.
We moved in and the first... I'm going to say 2 weeks, were okay. We didn't have any furniture but I did have a lot of kitchen stuff from when I used to live with my ex, so we bought bean bags and used those for a bit. Eventually within those two weeks we went to the store together and found a papasan chair that we both liked, I ended up buying it. We also found a nice little TV stand, I also bought.
About a month in is when COVID 19 lock downs started to get really serious in our state. The guy that I had fallen in love with before when I was with my ex? Me and him started dating about a week after that break up (thats a whole other story tbh) so at this point we where together for about 4 months.
Originally he had been coming over in the first week or two and then leaving to go home, were he lived with his grandparents, after I fell asleep. He didn't have a key so roomie got mad when the door was left unlocked all night.
And here is our first issue.
Me, I thought okay well I guess let's get him a key? So I went and made a spare and was honestly kind of nervous because this would be a big step in our relationship, so I told roomie on the way to work that I had made a spare and was thinking about giving it to my bf.
She flipped out and said I had gone behind her back and that I should have talked to her about it, but ultimately that yeah it was fine to give him the key. I waited a week to give it to him after that.
About a week after that is when COVID really kicked in and to make a long story short, he asked if he could temporarily move in with me because his grandparents where high risk. I said of course, and we brought it up to roomie.
She was upset at first (honestly I don't remeber why) but said yeah it was fine and she thought it was really sweet that he was looking out for his grandparents.
Let me go back real quick and fill yall in on one or two other back storys that I promise will make sense and this whole thing will come full circle.
Roomie and the bf are no strangers. We are all coworkers, tho bf does work in a different department (he also gets payed more which will come into play later) and we all would go out drinking and partying together.
In January, we threw a group bday party because we had so many friends with January bdays including, me and the bf. To make a long story short, it was a weird time of our relationship. We were technically "open" and we got very drunk that night. Leading to a 5 way make out session between me, roomie, bf, friend A and friend B.
(We had also joked quite often with friend A and friend B about orgies etc) when the party started dying down (this was when I lived at friend As house and the party was held there) me and bf headed back to my room. We came back out and invited roomie in if she wanted (wink winks included) and instead got her and another guy.
To skip the details. Basically the guy was not welcome but we were too drunk to really say or realize how uncomfortable we were with the situation. And ultimately the next day after discussing it, both me, bf, and roomie were very uncomfortable with the whole situation and bf honestly felt as tho he'd been violated if not raped
This night would also prove to cause more than one issue. But basically you can see now that roomie, me and bf all knew eachother fairly well and it wasn't like I was just letting a random guy move in.
Back to the roomie situation. We agreed when he moved in that because he would be sharing a room with me he wouldn't pay rent and instead would buy all the groceries. (Which would usually be around 2-300$ a week in all honesty but would eventually calm down to about 300 every two weeks unless we ate something special)
We very soon found that me and roomie had very different living styles. I didn't mind if dishes were left for a day or two or if the house was a little messy as long as it got cleaned on the weekends.
She however likes things spotless and always clean. She did express this once or twice, saying hey just make sure ur cleaning it up within the day. So I said okay and did just that. Then it went on to hey can you make sure they are cleaned up right after you are done. So I said sure, and did that.
Then months pass and she kept getting more and more bitter toward us and more angry, stomping around the apartment and completely avoiding us. Within these months a few other things happened.
One, I got very drunk, black out drunk, with her and bf one night and accidently told bf roomie had been fucking someone (she had just told him she sucked him off so my drunk mind was like oh shes being open about it I can talk about her and her fuck buddy in front of him now) then later that same night, I called her boy toy and told him he should fuck her basically.
I was drunk out of my mind, and he realized that. However she appearently did not. I truly barely remember the actual events of that call.
What I do remeber is that i was so so happy with my bf and that I thought the boy toy could be that to her and just wanted her to feel the way I did. I thought she was holding herself back.
Obviously I went about it in the compete wrong way and in her words made her feel like a hoe and that she couldn't get someone without being whored out. I apologized profusely and constantly but I don't think she ever actually forgave me.
During the beginning weeks of us moving in she had also invited me out to drink and go bar hopping and the group of friends we had, invited me to a housewarming party, however I was so tired of drinking and partying and was dead broke and still owed her $600 and it was also around the time bf had gotten violated and was therefore distancing himself from the group, so i said no. i didnt want to go out.
She begged me and often asked why bf didn't want to hang out too and I eventually told her its because he's trying to distance and doesn't want to be around the group rn, and that I personally just didn't want to go out. I wanted to stay in with the dogs. She offered to buy me drinks etc and I just didn't want to. I was tired and just wanted to relax. (Again I promise this plays in)
Jumping back to living in the apt with roomie, when covid seemed to be letting up we decided to have a small get together to catch up and celebrate missed bdays. Immediately after inviting, Friend A (who I used to be closest with) just said No. It was really weird and kinda abrasive and my first clue that something was wrong.
So I said okay what if we do another date, most people agreed and we ended up having it the day before the original day.
For this party let me add that roomie didn't offer to help clean before or after, or even offer to buy any of the party supplies or food or even just 20$.
In fact she did the exact opposite and asked us to by specific stuff so she could try certain shots and if we could buy a beer pong table. We couldn't afford the beer pong but we did our best and got 2 cheap tables from ikea instead.
She would later confess that when we asked her if the original date of the party was a good date, that she lied and said yeah when she knew 100% that it wasn't and that they had already had another party planned. But that "we ended up having back to back partys and both were successful so it worked out" (we were not told or invited or even aware of the other party. And at that time we didn't even realize we were appearantly on bad terms with everyone?)
There was also the time where she came home high asf (which she did often tbh). Me and bf were sitting on the couch watching TV and she comes in and starts asking us questions.
Basically all I really remember from that is having this conversation: she was pissed off because I had told friend A and friend B what had happened the night of the January bdays, and that we had made her feel bad for telling her best friend (which btw, just happened to be bfs boss.)
(To this day she doesn't understand why telling bfs boss that her, me, bf, and another coworker directly in bfs area, that bf felt he'd gotten raped, was a BAD idea and something we didn't want)
but at the same time she kept saying she wasn't mad and actually glad she had someone to talk to about it all now an that she just didn't understand why she couldn't tell her BFF (bfs boss)
Then there was a singular moment where I said something like "well when we were friends" or something that implied we arnt friends with the coworker friend group anymore i guess, she said "Oooooohhh so your not friends with them anymore??"
And I was like no that's not what I said. I just mean we havnt hung out for a while or talked because of the whole covid thing. And she kinda just took that whole "oh you're not friends any more hmm?" And questioned more and then went back in her room leaving me heated asf.
Fast forward maybe 4 months or so, and finally we have the outburst.
She sends this extremely long text about how we need to keep the house cleaner and wipe everything down after cooking more and that she thinks bf should pay rent and be put on the lease.
That's shes been forced to keep stuff in her own closet because the pantry is too full and that we need to keep the fridge more organized so she can put stuff in there.
That she didn't feel comfortable being out in the common areas because it was practically our place and because we occasionally would walk around "half naked" and that she felt like she was walking on egg shells and had anxiety about being out in the common areas. (Ditto)
and that she wanted documentation stating that the porch stains were my fault and that she had nothing to do with them
(that relates back to the fact that I had invested in the porch potty, and while the dogs would poop on it, they often would pee on the door or barriers instead and since we lived on the 3rd floor when they peed on the barriers it once accidently got down to the neighbors porch which we immediately where like omg im so sorry and started just walking them more, but the stains from them peeing next to the door were there since I hadn't gotten around to cleaning it (it was like a 105 degree summer and honestly just didn't cross my mind all that often once we started walking them) )
Originally bf was just going to move out. I didn't want him on the lease especially if it were to extend our stay, but we understood from a legal stand point she was probably right.
I also didn't agree with him paying rent. Or at least not the full 3 way split. She has the master bedroom with a private bathroom, walk in closet and other storage/pantry closet.
We share the smaller bedroom with a extremely small closet and do have our own bathroom however its far from private.
Yes she claims that if she has guests over they would use her bathroom but at the same time even if the stuff we keep in the bathroom is private, its not the same.
For example the times shes caught us "half naked" around the house look like this: bf with a robe on or pants and no shirt, me with a big shirt on and underwear. Once maybe with a blanket or towel around myself trying to get to the bathroom to clean up after sex.
And honestly I didn't see the problem with it with her given our history and that she's pretty much seen us both naked multiple times.
When she sent that text, I told her give us a few days to figure out our options. (Because bf wanted to move out) and she got pissed saying that it was always on my schedual and things always revolve around when I want to do things. I just didn't want to make any rash decisions and was trying to stay calm.
I'd never realized how upset she was at us because everytime we'd ask her if she was okay or whats up she said "its good" or "its fine" in a sing-song voice. I knew there was tension and I knew she was upset but not about what.
She was also the one who decided to stop using the groceries bf bought, which was his "rent" we often bought in bulk, causing the fridge and pantry to be pretty full, and the fee times we bought her specific stuff we knew she liked she didn't eat them and went to waste.
We would ask her what she wanted from the grocery store and she's say nothing. The only time we ever got upset (but never told her tbh) was that we used to also cook for her aswell, which was fine. But we made a really expensive dinner for our 6 month anniversary and she ended up eating all of it without even asking.
She also told me she thought I was jealous of her and that I thought she wanted my bf because whenever she was in the kitchen alone with him, id be in there too.
Honestly I laughed and told her God no, I didn't even realize I was doing that and that it was probably because 1)me and bf had just had a huge fight and I was being clingy in general and 2) I had hella anxiety when she was in there because I knew we had just cooked and were in the middle of eating and hadn't cleaned them yet, and I didn't want to put that all on him or have her chew him out.
Anyhow, i finally responded to her long text and told her I agreed with pretty much everything, that we would do better to leave her space and clean up and that all we asked of her was that she didn't use metal on our pots and was careful not to put rustable things in the dishwasher since we'd been having that problem with things like the can opener, certain knifes and baking sheets.
Also that I would clean the porch but not write her a note since there is a 500$ non refundable pet deposited anyhow and when the time came I would take ownership, plus the dogs are in my name.
I did tell her that we would agree to do a 40 30 30 split on rent, even 3 way on utilities, as we thought that was fair since she had the master and we shared a room. She didn't like that at all and said we should pay more because we used the common areas more and she didn't feel comfortable using them.
She proposed a 40 40 20, then realized that was the same as 40 30 30 (which its not really, we arnt joint income) and instead said she'd only agree to a 35 35 30.
I hated it i didn't even agree with the 40 30 30, I wanted to do a 45 27.5 27.5 (because according to online rent calculators that was considered fair given the living situation). But bf said he'd rather just take the loss and have us pay the extra x amount if it'll get her to leave us alone. So we agreed to that.
Real quick let me explain the furniture and why she perhaps feels like it's mostly our apartment. In the beginning we were constantly talking about how we wanted to furnish and design ideas.
We knew it would take a while but it was fun to plan. When we moved in, like I said, I owed her $600. I would still ask her if she liked this or that and she started to say "what, did you win the lottery" or "are you planning on winning the lottery?" In a smart ass kinda hostile tone. And I was like no I'm just curious if you liked this style that way when we can or if we find something on sale we don't just buy stuff the other person hates.
She proceeded to constantly ask me if I had gotten the 3k that my ex owed me (honestly even b4 we moved in together she constantly asked me if I got it) and when the stimulus checks got release would ask me about that too. Then started demanding I pay her back as soon as it seemed like I was in any way financially stable. I wasn't.
I was trying to balance making sure I had enough for rent and food and dog bills as well as trying to save to furnish the house a little bit (it was obvious she wasn't going to), and considering she said to take as long as I needed to pay her back I thought she would appreciate the fact I wanted to buy furniture and make it nice.
I ended up over draftng my account to pay her back but she was pissed because I took put the 14 months of renters insurance (like 8 or 9$ a month each) so that we didn't have to deal with it later and she decided to be petty and tell me I owed her back taxes for the last 3 months rent because she payed it (it was like 40$).
I ultimately furnished all of the common areas, bought us a couch a coffee table a bookshelf a giant gate so the dogs no longer had access to the carpeted area, everything. And I never ever once told her she couldn't use it.
In fact I often encouraged it and she'd claim she just preferred being in her room.
In that text she had also mentioned that the dogs had the whole dining area to themselves so that also made her uncomfortable (she also mentioned in person that my little dog should be in his cage all day because he peed on her door) keep in mind that I have fairly well behaved dogs and I pay a $60 pet rent everyone for them.
They don't bark unless there is someone at the door or kids running and screaming right outside it. We even sent the border collie to a board and train program to polish up his obedience and is CGC certified.
They don't chew. The worst they've done is had accidents in the house because they were either sick or I slept in and forgot to take them out.
Pretty much after that things were okay. We weren't friends and we weren't talking to eachother but we were civil.
Btw huge side note, she had admitted to venting to all our mutual friends and that she basically told them we were shit. Those friends no longer talk to us and avoid us like the plague when they see us at work.
One has even gone as far to tell a new coworker that he hates me. (I over heard him say it). Basically, that whole friend group that saved me from a toxic relationship and here the greatest? Disappeared without even questioning it or telling us what we did to upset them.
Anyways. Like I said things were okay for a month or 2, minus the fact that she had "stolen" all my friends. But I figure fuck it, they obviously didn't care enough about me to even ask for the other side of the story. That doesn't mean it didn't hurt though.
There was some aggravating parts. Remarks on her side concerning my personal life that I thought where inappropriately given our current state of things.
In that time we only really had one issue with her, and it was that she had ordered food on a work day and the delivery service knocked, causing the dogs to bark and us to get up, get fully dressed, and then try to go back to bed with only 1-2 hours left before we actually had to be up.
we told her when we woke up, hey please if u order on a work night just make sure they don't knock or that you ask them not to knock.
She said she told them to leave it at the door. She didn't know why they knocked. I told her you had to put in the notes to not knock, to which she responded that she felt like she was being attacked and that she did. I told her not trying to lecture or attack. Just tired and wanted to make sure that you had, that we understand its out of her control after that.
She then went on to say that we made noise on the weekends and were super loud when we were happy/drunk/being goofy, and i basically told her that she can make all the noise she wants on the weekends because we can sleep in, and that if she had an issue with how loud we are ever, to tell us.
She continued to say that she felt like things were delicate and that we were all trying too hard to act a way that used to come so naturally between us.
I told her I wasn't acting and I was just being me. That if my ignoring her at work and not asking her about her day bugged her im sorry but I'm not going to make small talk and that I didn't see the point in trying to small talk with someone who has clearly shown they no longer want to be friends. That she should just be herself and don't pretend or force something if it makes her uncomfortable, otherwise things will always be delicate..
She then switched her whole attitude saying that "i thought YOU said we weren't friends anymore" and that she was just being courteous and she's never been fake. And that since we arnt friends any more she has infinitely more patience for friends and therefore for none with us.
Which brings us to yesterday.
Yesterday was her last day of the current position she was in and was taking off x amount of time till she started her new position.
It also just happened that I had bought a Furbo the day before to help aid with my dogs training and to keep an eye on them while I was at work. It came and I told roomie about it and she said it was really cool and seemed really excited and interested about it. I then set it up.
The next day when we went to work, she stayed home because she would be starting a new position soon. She ended up texting that she didn't feel comfortable with it and because of body issues she would be turning it towards the wall and that me setting up the camera felt like when I had given bf the key without consulting her.
To which I reminded her that I had told her, I had only made it without telling her; that I would have made the key anyways in case one of us lost ours.
Likewise i told her I didn't feel the need to inform her about buying the Furbo because I would have bought it whether or not she agreed to put it up (it was on sale) further I told her I didn't install it till she gave me the okay at which point she said she never agreed, just said It was cool.
(She said it was awesome and "pretty dope" and had like 2 questions about it (the scope as well as how long it has been up, which like I told her it wasn't up until she said it was awesome) )
I stupidly decided to argue and get upset. She definitely caught me at a bad time. But basically I told her I understand why she wants to turn in away but that I was upset she said it was okay to put up and then the next day she wasn't okay with it. And that though I don't think she would but I couldn't help but have mama bear instincts kick in and think what if she wants to turn the camera away because she's hurting the dogs.
She's definitely expressed enough disdain for them and hates me and is mad at me enough.
She took that comment and ran with it. Saying she'd move out and that we made her feel like an ogre constantly and that she can never do anything right, that now she knows how I really see her. I told her to look at if from my perspective.
That she turned all my friends against me and was constantly complaining about things in the house and really that the biggest problem has come from her not saying her feelings and complaints for 4 months and holding it all in.
That I constantly felt anxiety talking to her and am constantly worried " great whats roomie upset about now"
That the one time we actually called her put for doing something we don't like (the door knocking while we where sleeping for work) she didn't just say sorry, i did put don't knock, but instead played the victim and said we were attacking and lecturing her..
She completely disagreed that she turned everyone against us and we had a whole argument about that. Ultimately she said she would stay quiet and stop bugging and that she wouldn't cause any more stress till April that we could keep the camera up and that she'd stay out of my way as much as possible.
That "people change..."
I ended it with no, I don't think we changed i think we just finally saw eachother for their flaws. I took the camera down as soon as I got home from work that night
Then this morning I woke up to
"Just noticed u wrote this but you're right after comparing my situation with those of Friend As mom, ur ex, his mother, and everyone else, I finally see u for who u truly are. U may not have changed but I have. Situations like this are supposed to do that in my opinion, force one to reflect, adapt, and grow."
I havnt responded.
In my opinion she has no right to compare herself. My ex and his mom were obviously pissed when I moved out because I dumped her son.
I had no issues living with them otherwise. Friend As mom, I understand her being upset because she didn't like dogs and my dogs made a mess because they were stressed, I did my best and it wasn't enough. I don't know what else I could have done and thats why i moved out asap.
She has been the absolute worst room mate and friend and I feel this could have all been solved if she just communicated better.
She's 31 years old. I'm 22.
Youd think at some point you learn to be the bigger person and grow up, like we have honestly so many times just to get her to shut up. I've asked her what I can do to make her more comfortable and she doesn't answer.
Truthfully I've given in to every request shes had, and I don't understand what I personally did to make her feel so much anxiety around me. It's her own fault for holding it in instead of just saying it.
There are countless things I did to try to make her happy and things she did that made me mad and that I just never said anything about (eating certain meals that were clearly ours, never taking out the trash and letting it overflow, only cleaning when she was pissed off at us after we had already cleaned, using the dishwasher as a drying rack
(we specifically bought her a dryer rack so she would stop doing this and she still does it. Whats even more infuriating is that she will open a clean dishwasher, not unload it, and then put her dishes in there to dry. Overlapping so it won't even dry well)
putting a lock on her door and locking it every time she leaves (honestly thats only infuriating because she did it before we even had huge fights and just shows how much she really trusted us) and honestly the list goes on.
The few times the dogs had accidents in the house, she would get home before us and send us a picture and I would just text back thanks well see it when we get there and clean it up. I could go on and on. And we never call her out on any of this because if we donwe are attacking her.)
I truely feel I'm being fairly nice and trying to see it from her perspective as much as possible. I realize I havnt been great but I just... aghh
Am I the asshole??? D:
submitted by BlueDaisy62 to badroommates [link] [comments]


2020.10.24 10:22 BlueDaisy62 Am I The Asshole? (My Roomate From Hell) (Grab some snackkies this is kinda long)

Back in July of 2019 I started a new job. I was in a long term 4 year relationship, and living with his mom (we had our own house but moved in with his mom to 1)save money to buy a house but 2) his dad and little sister needed a place to live so we let them have that place)
when I started this new job i met a group of people who basically helped me realize how toxic of a relationship I was in and the potential happiness I could have else wise. I also met another guy who, in all honesty, I fell in love with.
No I didn't cheat or anything, but I knew for a long time that I wasn't in love with the high-school sweetheart and that there were so many warning signs that I should have left sooner (he constantly screamed at me and made me feel worthless, I felt like I was there just for him to say he had a girlfriend and have sex, he gamed 24/7 and constantly chose his games over hanging out with me or even taking care of his health)
these friends (let's call them friend A and friend B) gave me what I needed most in that time: a place to stay if I broke up with him.
I took that opportunity and broke it off, staying at their place for a day and then deciding with them the next day that I would sublet from them, splitting ret and utilities 5 ways. (It was a three bedroom house, and it was friend As sister and her that lived there, but her mom eventually moved in and for some reason friend A and friend B decided even though they were not living there , they would continue to pay 2/5 of rent to try to help out their family.)
I had 4 dogs and 3 guinea pigs with my ex. I only took the two dogs that were technically mine.
Moving in i didn't have a bed or any furniture besides my desk pc and TV, they allowed me to use their bed. The people in the house didn't particularly like dogs either so they would be stuck in my room 24/7 unless I took them out for walks. ( the back yard was occupied by friend As dog and wasn't dog friendly so I couldn't put my pups out there) I work 12 hour night shifts 3-4 days a week.
Anyways, because it wasn't my bed and the housemates didn't like dogs, I ultimately had to crate my pups 24/7 except for 2 walks a day (one before I left for work one after I got home.) This was an extremely stressful situation for the dogs and ultimately they started having explosive and bloody diarrhea 2-3 times a day.
The only solution I could think of at the time was to keep them in the bathroom some days so that I didn't have to keep steam cleaning the carpet around the crate as well as easier clean up (the bathroom was tile) and not having to get even more shit on the carpet having to take them to the bathtub. (I have a bordercollie and a jack chi)
This living situation was pretty shit and was even worse for friend As mom who had to share a bathroom with me and would often express how upset she was about the dogs being in there. I made a decision in January 2020 to try to find better living arrangements, as nice as it was having lower rent costs.
Which brings me to the actual "Am I the shit roomate?" Story.
There was another coworker who I ultimately befriended. Looking back it was a fairly toxic friendship. I made a few bad jokes/said things that she took out of context and we joked about, but then she would introduce me to new coworkers like that: " oh hey! Have you met (me) yet? Yeah she called me a *****" it eventually got to the point where people i hadn't even met would say oh right! You're the one who said "xyz"
Anyhow, I had vented alot of my frustrations to her about my ex and current living situation. we became, in her mind, best friends; and in a way I just accepted that. Though I don't think I ever felt as strongly connected to her as she did to me. I was really more interested in being best friends with Friend A because they had helped me so much and I was so grateful, but I appreciated this coworker and trusted her (well just call her roomie for the sake of later)
Roomie was new here and moved from Guam to live with her sister about 2 years back. During DecembeJanuary she started fighting with said sister and was looking for a place to move to.
I originally denied the idea because I was content with living at Friend A and Friend Bs place, however when the dogs conditions started to degrade I knew I needed to find a new place asap, so I ultimately said sure, let's find a place together.
We found a nice 2 bed 2 bath apartment, 3rd floor. My only condition with living with her was that the dogs were allowed to be out and about and not locked in the cage. She agreed 100%. We moved in end of February 2020 signing a 14 month lease.
For the first few weeks I kept the dogs caged while I was at work because they were having issues pooping and peeing on the carpet. I invested in one of those porch potties so that they could just go out and do their business on the porch instead of having to hold it for 12 hours and three flights of stairs. (This would ultimately become a problem)
Move in costs were a bit higher than I had excepted and I hadn't exactly been planning on moving out so soon so I only had maybe 2 weeks worth of paychecks saved and my tax return. I used all of it on downpayment and first months rent and still ended up owing her around 600$ which she said was fine and to just pay her back when I could, but not to worry.
We moved in and the first... I'm going to say 2 weeks, were okay. We didn't have any furniture but I did have a lot of kitchen stuff from when I used to live with my ex, so we bought bean bags and used those for a bit. Eventually within those two weeks we went to the store together and found a papasan chair that we both liked, I ended up buying it. We also found a nice little TV stand, I also bought.
About a month in is when COVID 19 lock downs started to get really serious in our state. The guy that I had fallen in love with before when I was with my ex? Me and him started dating about a week after that break up (thats a whole other story tbh) so at this point we where together for about 4 months.
Originally he had been coming over in the first week or two and then leaving to go home, were he lived with his grandparents, after I fell asleep. He didn't have a key so roomie got mad when the door was left unlocked all night.
And here is our first issue.
Me, I thought okay well I guess let's get him a key? So I went and made a spare and was honestly kind of nervous because this would be a big step in our relationship, so I told roomie on the way to work that I had made a spare and was thinking about giving it to my bf.
She flipped out and said I had gone behind her back and that I should have talked to her about it, but ultimately that yeah it was fine to give him the key. I waited a week to give it to him after that.
About a week after that is when COVID really kicked in and to make a long story short, he asked if he could temporarily move in with me because his grandparents where high risk. I said of course, and we brought it up to roomie.
She was upset at first (honestly I don't remeber why) but said yeah it was fine and she thought it was really sweet that he was looking out for his grandparents.
Let me go back real quick and fill yall in on one or two other back storys that I promise will make sense and this whole thing will come full circle.
Roomie and the bf are no strangers. We are all coworkers, tho bf does work in a different department (he also gets payed more which will come into play later) and we all would go out drinking and partying together.
In January, we threw a group bday party because we had so many friends with January bdays including, me and the bf. To make a long story short, it was a weird time of our relationship. We were technically "open" and we got very drunk that night. Leading to a 5 way make out session between me, roomie, bf, friend A and friend B.
(We had also joked quite often with friend A and friend B about orgies etc) when the party started dying down (this was when I lived at friend As house and the party was held there) me and bf headed back to my room. We came back out and invited roomie in if she wanted (wink winks included) and instead got her and another guy.
To skip the details. Basically the guy was not welcome but we were too drunk to really say or realize how uncomfortable we were with the situation. And ultimately the next day after discussing it, both me, bf, and roomie were very uncomfortable with the whole situation and bf honestly felt as tho he'd been violated if not raped
This night would also prove to cause more than one issue. But basically you can see now that roomie, me and bf all knew eachother fairly well and it wasn't like I was just letting a random guy move in.
Back to the roomie situation. We agreed when he moved in that because he would be sharing a room with me he wouldn't pay rent and instead would buy all the groceries. (Which would usually be around 2-300$ a week in all honesty but would eventually calm down to about 300 every two weeks unless we ate something special)
We very soon found that me and roomie had very different living styles. I didn't mind if dishes were left for a day or two or if the house was a little messy as long as it got cleaned on the weekends.
She however likes things spotless and always clean. She did express this once or twice, saying hey just make sure ur cleaning it up within the day. So I said okay and did just that. Then it went on to hey can you make sure they are cleaned up right after you are done. So I said sure, and did that.
Then months pass and she kept getting more and more bitter toward us and more angry, stomping around the apartment and completely avoiding us. Within these months a few other things happened.
One, I got very drunk, black out drunk, with her and bf one night and accidently told bf roomie had been fucking someone (she had just told him she sucked him off so my drunk mind was like oh shes being open about it I can talk about her and her fuck buddy in front of him now) then later that same night, I called her boy toy and told him he should fuck her basically.
I was drunk out of my mind, and he realized that. However she appearently did not. I truly barely remember the actual events of that call.
What I do remeber is that i was so so happy with my bf and that I thought the boy toy could be that to her and just wanted her to feel the way I did. I thought she was holding herself back.
Obviously I went about it in the compete wrong way and in her words made her feel like a hoe and that she couldn't get someone without being whored out. I apologized profusely and constantly but I don't think she ever actually forgave me.
During the beginning weeks of us moving in she had also invited me out to drink and go bar hopping and the group of friends we had, invited me to a housewarming party, however I was so tired of drinking and partying and was dead broke and still owed her $600 and it was also around the time bf had gotten violated and was therefore distancing himself from the group, so i said no. i didnt want to go out.
She begged me and often asked why bf didn't want to hang out too and I eventually told her its because he's trying to distance and doesn't want to be around the group rn, and that I personally just didn't want to go out. I wanted to stay in with the dogs. She offered to buy me drinks etc and I just didn't want to. I was tired and just wanted to relax. (Again I promise this plays in)
Jumping back to living in the apt with roomie, when covid seemed to be letting up we decided to have a small get together to catch up and celebrate missed bdays. Immediately after inviting, Friend A (who I used to be closest with) just said No. It was really weird and kinda abrasive and my first clue that something was wrong.
So I said okay what if we do another date, most people agreed and we ended up having it the day before the original day.
For this party let me add that roomie didn't offer to help clean before or after, or even offer to buy any of the party supplies or food or even just 20$.
In fact she did the exact opposite and asked us to by specific stuff so she could try certain shots and if we could buy a beer pong table. We couldn't afford the beer pong but we did our best and got 2 cheap tables from ikea instead.
She would later confess that when we asked her if the original date of the party was a good date, that she lied and said yeah when she knew 100% that it wasn't and that they had already had another party planned. But that "we ended up having back to back partys and both were successful so it worked out" (we were not told or invited or even aware of the other party. And at that time we didn't even realize we were appearantly on bad terms with everyone?)
There was also the time where she came home high asf (which she did often tbh). Me and bf were sitting on the couch watching TV and she comes in and starts asking us questions.
Basically all I really remember from that is having this conversation: she was pissed off because I had told friend A and friend B what had happened the night of the January bdays, and that we had made her feel bad for telling her best friend (which btw, just happened to be bfs boss.)
(To this day she doesn't understand why telling bfs boss that her, me, bf, and another coworker directly in bfs area, that bf felt he'd gotten raped, was a BAD idea and something we didn't want)
but at the same time she kept saying she wasn't mad and actually glad she had someone to talk to about it all now an that she just didn't understand why she couldn't tell her BFF (bfs boss)
Then there was a singular moment where I said something like "well when we were friends" or something that implied we arnt friends with the coworker friend group anymore i guess, she said "Oooooohhh so your not friends with them anymore??"
And I was like no that's not what I said. I just mean we havnt hung out for a while or talked because of the whole covid thing. And she kinda just took that whole "oh you're not friends any more hmm?" And questioned more and then went back in her room leaving me heated asf.
Fast forward maybe 4 months or so, and finally we have the outburst.
She sends this extremely long text about how we need to keep the house cleaner and wipe everything down after cooking more and that she thinks bf should pay rent and be put on the lease.
That's shes been forced to keep stuff in her own closet because the pantry is too full and that we need to keep the fridge more organized so she can put stuff in there.
That she didn't feel comfortable being out in the common areas because it was practically our place and because we occasionally would walk around "half naked" and that she felt like she was walking on egg shells and had anxiety about being out in the common areas. (Ditto)
and that she wanted documentation stating that the porch stains were my fault and that she had nothing to do with them
(that relates back to the fact that I had invested in the porch potty, and while the dogs would poop on it, they often would pee on the door or barriers instead and since we lived on the 3rd floor when they peed on the barriers it once accidently got down to the neighbors porch which we immediately where like omg im so sorry and started just walking them more, but the stains from them peeing next to the door were there since I hadn't gotten around to cleaning it (it was like a 105 degree summer and honestly just didn't cross my mind all that often once we started walking them) )
Originally bf was just going to move out. I didn't want him on the lease especially if it were to extend our stay, but we understood from a legal stand point she was probably right.
I also didn't agree with him paying rent. Or at least not the full 3 way split. She has the master bedroom with a private bathroom, walk in closet and other storage/pantry closet.
We share the smaller bedroom with a extremely small closet and do have our own bathroom however its far from private.
Yes she claims that if she has guests over they would use her bathroom but at the same time even if the stuff we keep in the bathroom is private, its not the same.
For example the times shes caught us "half naked" around the house look like this: bf with a robe on or pants and no shirt, me with a big shirt on and underwear. Once maybe with a blanket or towel around myself trying to get to the bathroom to clean up after sex.
And honestly I didn't see the problem with it with her given our history and that she's pretty much seen us both naked multiple times.
When she sent that text, I told her give us a few days to figure out our options. (Because bf wanted to move out) and she got pissed saying that it was always on my schedual and things always revolve around when I want to do things. I just didn't want to make any rash decisions and was trying to stay calm.
I'd never realized how upset she was at us because everytime we'd ask her if she was okay or whats up she said "its good" or "its fine" in a sing-song voice. I knew there was tension and I knew she was upset but not about what.
She was also the one who decided to stop using the groceries bf bought, which was his "rent" we often bought in bulk, causing the fridge and pantry to be pretty full, and the fee times we bought her specific stuff we knew she liked she didn't eat them and went to waste.
We would ask her what she wanted from the grocery store and she's say nothing. The only time we ever got upset (but never told her tbh) was that we used to also cook for her aswell, which was fine. But we made a really expensive dinner for our 6 month anniversary and she ended up eating all of it without even asking.
She also told me she thought I was jealous of her and that I thought she wanted my bf because whenever she was in the kitchen alone with him, id be in there too.
Honestly I laughed and told her God no, I didn't even realize I was doing that and that it was probably because 1)me and bf had just had a huge fight and I was being clingy in general and 2) I had hella anxiety when she was in there because I knew we had just cooked and were in the middle of eating and hadn't cleaned them yet, and I didn't want to put that all on him or have her chew him out.
Anyhow, i finally responded to her long text and told her I agreed with pretty much everything, that we would do better to leave her space and clean up and that all we asked of her was that she didn't use metal on our pots and was careful not to put rustable things in the dishwasher since we'd been having that problem with things like the can opener, certain knifes and baking sheets.
Also that I would clean the porch but not write her a note since there is a 500$ non refundable pet deposited anyhow and when the time came I would take ownership, plus the dogs are in my name.
I did tell her that we would agree to do a 40 30 30 split on rent, even 3 way on utilities, as we thought that was fair since she had the master and we shared a room. She didn't like that at all and said we should pay more because we used the common areas more and she didn't feel comfortable using them.
She proposed a 40 40 20, then realized that was the same as 40 30 30 (which its not really, we arnt joint income) and instead said she'd only agree to a 35 35 30.
I hated it i didn't even agree with the 40 30 30, I wanted to do a 45 27.5 27.5 (because according to online rent calculators that was considered fair given the living situation). But bf said he'd rather just take the loss and have us pay the extra x amount if it'll get her to leave us alone. So we agreed to that.
Real quick let me explain the furniture and why she perhaps feels like it's mostly our apartment. In the beginning we were constantly talking about how we wanted to furnish and design ideas.
We knew it would take a while but it was fun to plan. When we moved in, like I said, I owed her $600. I would still ask her if she liked this or that and she started to say "what, did you win the lottery" or "are you planning on winning the lottery?" In a smart ass kinda hostile tone. And I was like no I'm just curious if you liked this style that way when we can or if we find something on sale we don't just buy stuff the other person hates.
She proceeded to constantly ask me if I had gotten the 3k that my ex owed me (honestly even b4 we moved in together she constantly asked me if I got it) and when the stimulus checks got release would ask me about that too. Then started demanding I pay her back as soon as it seemed like I was in any way financially stable. I wasn't.
I was trying to balance making sure I had enough for rent and food and dog bills as well as trying to save to furnish the house a little bit (it was obvious she wasn't going to), and considering she said to take as long as I needed to pay her back I thought she would appreciate the fact I wanted to buy furniture and make it nice.
I ended up over draftng my account to pay her back but she was pissed because I took put the 14 months of renters insurance (like 8 or 9$ a month each) so that we didn't have to deal with it later and she decided to be petty and tell me I owed her back taxes for the last 3 months rent because she payed it (it was like 40$).
I ultimately furnished all of the common areas, bought us a couch a coffee table a bookshelf a giant gate so the dogs no longer had access to the carpeted area, everything. And I never ever once told her she couldn't use it.
In fact I often encouraged it and she'd claim she just preferred being in her room.
In that text she had also mentioned that the dogs had the whole dining area to themselves so that also made her uncomfortable (she also mentioned in person that my little dog should be in his cage all day because he peed on her door) keep in mind that I have fairly well behaved dogs and I pay a $60 pet rent everyone for them.
They don't bark unless there is someone at the door or kids running and screaming right outside it. We even sent the border collie to a board and train program to polish up his obedience and is CGC certified.
They don't chew. The worst they've done is had accidents in the house because they were either sick or I slept in and forgot to take them out.
Pretty much after that things were okay. We weren't friends and we weren't talking to eachother but we were civil.
Btw huge side note, she had admitted to venting to all our mutual friends and that she basically told them we were shit. Those friends no longer talk to us and avoid us like the plague when they see us at work.
One has even gone as far to tell a new coworker that he hates me. (I over heard him say it). Basically, that whole friend group that saved me from a toxic relationship and here the greatest? Disappeared without even questioning it or telling us what we did to upset them.
Anyways. Like I said things were okay for a month or 2, minus the fact that she had "stolen" all my friends. But I figure fuck it, they obviously didn't care enough about me to even ask for the other side of the story. That doesn't mean it didn't hurt though.
There was some aggravating parts. Remarks on her side concerning my personal life that I thought where inappropriately given our current state of things.
In that time we only really had one issue with her, and it was that she had ordered food on a work day and the delivery service knocked, causing the dogs to bark and us to get up, get fully dressed, and then try to go back to bed with only 1-2 hours left before we actually had to be up.
we told her when we woke up, hey please if u order on a work night just make sure they don't knock or that you ask them not to knock.
She said she told them to leave it at the door. She didn't know why they knocked. I told her you had to put in the notes to not knock, to which she responded that she felt like she was being attacked and that she did. I told her not trying to lecture or attack. Just tired and wanted to make sure that you had, that we understand its out of her control after that.
She then went on to say that we made noise on the weekends and were super loud when we were happy/drunk/being goofy, and i basically told her that she can make all the noise she wants on the weekends because we can sleep in, and that if she had an issue with how loud we are ever, to tell us.
She continued to say that she felt like things were delicate and that we were all trying too hard to act a way that used to come so naturally between us.
I told her I wasn't acting and I was just being me. That if my ignoring her at work and not asking her about her day bugged her im sorry but I'm not going to make small talk and that I didn't see the point in trying to small talk with someone who has clearly shown they no longer want to be friends. That she should just be herself and don't pretend or force something if it makes her uncomfortable, otherwise things will always be delicate..
She then switched her whole attitude saying that "i thought YOU said we weren't friends anymore" and that she was just being courteous and she's never been fake. And that since we arnt friends any more she has infinitely more patience for friends and therefore for none with us.
Which brings us to yesterday.
Yesterday was her last day of the current position she was in and was taking off x amount of time till she started her new position.
It also just happened that I had bought a Furbo the day before to help aid with my dogs training and to keep an eye on them while I was at work. It came and I told roomie about it and she said it was really cool and seemed really excited and interested about it. I then set it up.
The next day when we went to work, she stayed home because she would be starting a new position soon. She ended up texting that she didn't feel comfortable with it and because of body issues she would be turning it towards the wall and that me setting up the camera felt like when I had given bf the key without consulting her.
To which I reminded her that I had told her, I had only made it without telling her; that I would have made the key anyways in case one of us lost ours.
Likewise i told her I didn't feel the need to inform her about buying the Furbo because I would have bought it whether or not she agreed to put it up (it was on sale) further I told her I didn't install it till she gave me the okay at which point she said she never agreed, just said It was cool.
(She said it was awesome and "pretty dope" and had like 2 questions about it (the scope as well as how long it has been up, which like I told her it wasn't up until she said it was awesome) )
I stupidly decided to argue and get upset. She definitely caught me at a bad time. But basically I told her I understand why she wants to turn in away but that I was upset she said it was okay to put up and then the next day she wasn't okay with it. And that though I don't think she would but I couldn't help but have mama bear instincts kick in and think what if she wants to turn the camera away because she's hurting the dogs.
She's definitely expressed enough disdain for them and hates me and is mad at me enough.
She took that comment and ran with it. Saying she'd move out and that we made her feel like an ogre constantly and that she can never do anything right, that now she knows how I really see her. I told her to look at if from my perspective.
That she turned all my friends against me and was constantly complaining about things in the house and really that the biggest problem has come from her not saying her feelings and complaints for 4 months and holding it all in.
That I constantly felt anxiety talking to her and am constantly worried " great whats roomie upset about now"
That the one time we actually called her put for doing something we don't like (the door knocking while we where sleeping for work) she didn't just say sorry, i did put don't knock, but instead played the victim and said we were attacking and lecturing her..
She completely disagreed that she turned everyone against us and we had a whole argument about that. Ultimately she said she would stay quiet and stop bugging and that she wouldn't cause any more stress till April that we could keep the camera up and that she'd stay out of my way as much as possible.
That "people change..."
I ended it with no, I don't think we changed i think we just finally saw eachother for their flaws. I took the camera down as soon as I got home from work that night
Then this morning I woke up to
"Just noticed u wrote this but you're right after comparing my situation with those of Friend As mom, ur ex, his mother, and everyone else, I finally see u for who u truly are. U may not have changed but I have. Situations like this are supposed to do that in my opinion, force one to reflect, adapt, and grow."
I havnt responded.
In my opinion she has no right to compare herself. My ex and his mom were obviously pissed when I moved out because I dumped her son.
I had no issues living with them otherwise. Friend As mom, I understand her being upset because she didn't like dogs and my dogs made a mess because they were stressed, I did my best and it wasn't enough. I don't know what else I could have done and thats why i moved out asap.
She has been the absolute worst room mate and friend and I feel this could have all been solved if she just communicated better.
She's 31 years old. I'm 22.
Youd think at some point you learn to be the bigger person and grow up, like we have honestly so many times just to get her to shut up. I've asked her what I can do to make her more comfortable and she doesn't answer.
Truthfully I've given in to every request shes had, and I don't understand what I personally did to make her feel so much anxiety around me. It's her own fault for holding it in instead of just saying it.
There are countless things I did to try to make her happy and things she did that made me mad and that I just never said anything about (eating certain meals that were clearly ours, never taking out the trash and letting it overflow, only cleaning when she was pissed off at us after we had already cleaned, using the dishwasher as a drying rack
(we specifically bought her a dryer rack so she would stop doing this and she still does it. Whats even more infuriating is that she will open a clean dishwasher, not unload it, and then put her dishes in there to dry. Overlapping so it won't even dry well)
putting a lock on her door and locking it every time she leaves (honestly thats only infuriating because she did it before we even had huge fights and just shows how much she really trusted us) and honestly the list goes on.
The few times the dogs had accidents in the house, she would get home before us and send us a picture and I would just text back thanks well see it when we get there and clean it up. I could go on and on. And we never call her out on any of this because if we donwe are attacking her.)
I truely feel I'm being fairly nice and trying to see it from her perspective as much as possible. I realize I havnt been great but I just... aghh
Am I the asshole??? D:
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2020.10.24 08:11 Lupinepublishers-PBS Lupine Publishers Cognition and Comprehension in Students Learning Foreign Language

Lupine Publishers Cognition and Comprehension in Students Learning Foreign Language
Lupine Publishers Scholarly Journal Of Psychology And Behavioral Sciences

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Abstract
Learning is a mental feat that one must overcome especially with a subject that is difficult or if one dislikes. Learning a foreign language also presents its obstacles. Declarative memory and spatial recognition are the two types of memory recall within the hippocampus. Memory is a key aspect associated with language. As Instructors the delivery of materials and activities using short term memory stimulation is extremely important.
Keywords: Cognitive skills; Memory stimulation; Hippocampus; Foreign language; Activity-based learning
Opinion
It is human nature to have some level of apprehension or nervousness when taking on the journey of learning a new language. After all, learning anything, in itself, can be a challenge for many of us. Certainly, it takes effort and concentration. Learning is often seen as a definite mental feat that one must overcome, especially a subject or a concept that we may either dislike or fear. It has been seen that when it comes to Maths or Science, students may often become anxious or uncertain about learning and how he or she may fare in the end. This is a normal reaction to any challenging subject that requires serious study. But what about when it comes to taking on the task of learning a new language? A language that is nowhere close to one’s native tongue. A language that presents itself as an obstacle course full of hurdles and mud pits, waiting to stop anyone in their tracks. Stop them way before they are able to get a good foothold and begin. But this is relative, often, to how a student may perceive learning something new. It could very well be the perception of growing up and already speaking their own native language and now facing the task of a new one. Having said this, we know that the human brain is designed to function as a sponge when it comes to navigating anything new, especially languages. This is how our memory begins to become rooted and ready to recall any new experience. Our brain has an area within it called the hippocampus which is part of the Limbic system. When it comes to memory and recall, the hippocampus area of the human brain has a vast chore to accomplish. The recall of memory is so fast that we never, ever take consideration of how the brain even does it! Memory is the key to learning and interpreting any new experience especially those associated with language. In children and young teenagers, studies have shown that the brain reacts very markedly to the two types of memoryprocessing pathways that aid in learning. Declarative memory and spatial recognition are the two types of memory recall within the hippocampus that assist in memory processing [1]. Not only are these areas the key to learning in younger students, but research has shown that nerve cells in the brain continue to develop as we grow older [1]. The hippocampus happens to be one of the areas of the brain where nerve cells continue to proliferate and develop as we age, therefore, proving that an older adult student that is a non-native speaker is capable of recognizing and comprehending a new language. So, how does a student learn a new language? How is he or she able to recognize and then comprehend a new language? One part of the learning process is through the methodology of how they are taught. Delivery of materials and activities, such as writing, speaking, reading and grammar are extremely important for instilling the information so that the student is able to maintain what is presented. Another part of aiding the student in their cognition skills and comprehension is through short-term memory stimulation. It has been our experience that this process leads into and eventually becomes part of long-term memory. If either methodology or short-term stimulation are ill-presented, then there is probably not going to be a solidified foundation for that phase of learning. To be certain of a good foundation, methodology and shortterm stimulation must be consistent. In our observation, we asked several students how they best remembered a new language which was being taught to them. Several responded that they were always able to remember any type of activity-based learning. It can be noted that activities stimulated the pathways of memory, within the hippocampus, that help to associate functional connectivity to what took place. Others said that it was a combination of activitybased and repetition-based learning. The repetition-based learning included the vocalization of words and phrases, as the words and phrases were often written or spelled out and connected to practical everyday situations. This type of stimulation for shortterm memory caused the students to hear and see what was taking place more vividly than if activity only. It has also been researched and proven that activity-based learning relates to physical exercise for the body [2,3], and this may be the cause for preservation and improvement of memory [2], and this may be one of the reasons that adult students may fare well in comprehending and maintaining a new language. The plasticity of the brain and memory have a directly proportional relationship to physical exercise [2]. Depending on whether the new language is phonetic or written, cognition and comprehension will vary from student to student. We all learn at different levels and paces. Since it is a foreign (new) language being taught to the student, there is the natural tendency to try to either associate the language with their native language, or empty their minds and allow their brains to accept and welcome whatever is being taught. Either way, the learning process will be experienced and handled the best way possible according to each individual student. This is something that a good instructor should be aware of periodically as they teach.
Conclusion
In conclusion, cognition and comprehension by the student is also a responsibility of the instructor. The instructor should conduct checks and balances to assure their daily goals of teaching go according to the lesson plan. In doing this, the learning experience is sure to be profitable and rewarding for the student. Otherwise, a student, young or old, does not have a way of measuring their accomplishments for any given day of instruction. Combination of the efforts of the student and guidance from the instructor are a formidable program for success.
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2020.10.24 05:24 Torlek1 Critical Thinking: How much is Triterras really worth? (For $NFIN)

INTRODUCTION
On social media, this disruptor company has been called the Robinhood of fintech. Its customer base is the little guy: small and medium enterprises the world over. How?
docproc5150 wrote:
Does any one know what a fax machine is? That's basically the level of existing technology currently being used for smaller companies trying to export goods overseas. NFIN is trying to bring the modernization reserved currently for only the big players, to the small and micro companies trying to move goods overseas.
ami-no-timmortal wrote:
It’s more like this: You want to buy 10 tones of whatever commodity from Turkey and have it delivered to the port in the US. You go and use Kratos to do that on one platform where (I assume) finding all the relevant parties is made as easy and secure as possible.
Otherwise you’d have to contact multiple parties and in the end they wouldn’t bother doing business with you, cause you’re too small of a fish.
Thanks to its fintech, the company enables these same businesses to obtain trade finance and engage in global trade, treading where at least 60% of banks and trading companies won’t in a $40 trillion industry. This first mover aims to address the $1.5 trillion gap in SME trade finance. This total addressable market is only expected to grow to $2.5 trillion by 2025.
Better yet, this industry disruptor has not only survived the COVID-19 pandemic, but it has thrived. [Not least because it is based in Singapore, a solid financial hub with robust disease control measures.]
TRADE FINANCE INDUSTRY
Trade finance was described in The Economist as "the world's most complicated paper chase":
Take operational troubles first. Trade finance is notoriously paper-based. Processing credit requires involved parties, from financiers and carriers to warehouse managers and customs officers, to exchange an average of 36 documents and 240 copies. But lockdowns trapped bits of paper in shut-down offices. Printing became a palaver. When couriers eventually got to banks, they often found no one there.
Part of why the trade finance gap will grow to $2.5 trillion by 2025 is a financing crunch.
To assess clients, banks and insurers rely on credit ratings. These have plummeted as firms’ cashflows have dwindled. The resulting squeeze may linger, says Ebru Pakcan of Citigroup, a bank; firms are downgraded quickly, but upgraded slowly. Some lenders may focus on large clients or exit some markets entirely.
And the conclusion of the article?
Still, the pandemic could lead to lasting gains by forcing the industry to digitise.
COMPETITION
According to The Asset, however, trade digitization is "a priority for some, a wait and see for others."
Banks nevertheless have attempted to eliminate physical paper for their trade finance processes with global trade finance banks such as HSBC and Standard Chartered executing cross-border letter of credit transactions based on blockchain networks for several clients already.
Though these initial transactions are a step in the right direction for the overall industry, they still represent the minority of trade finance transactions and are actually not the main focus of banks when looking to digitalize trade finance processes. As the ICC survey reveals, the majority (55%) of banks surveyed sought to create online platforms instead to make it easier to request trade financing services, as opposed to 22% looking at distributed ledger technology such as blockchain.
Where bank enthusiasm for digitized trade finance falls short, non-banks will try to pick up the slack.
The unicorn Tradeshift, a cloud-based business network and platform for supply chain payments, is also struggling to do so, having laid off hundreds in striving towards profitability.
Flexport, whose main line of business is freight forwarding and not so much trade finance, is also struggling to do so, having laid off 50 employees recently.
Even we.trade, a preferred Blockchain platform for bigger players, is also struggling to do so, having cut some jobs because a recent funding round came up short.
Approximately 60 other trade finance players are trying to digitize. They are simply not doing so fast enough.
LEADER IN THE FIELD
Enter the leader in the field of disrupting trade finance through fintech innovation. The Chairman of Netfin ($NFIN), Martin Jaskel, commented on social media:
These consortia are all behind the leader in the field. Triterras ,soon to IPO on NASDAQ [...] The platform is powered by blockchain with all transactions insured from 85-90% for lenders. [...] New customers and lenders are being added on a regular basis.
While bigger players in business-to-business (B2B) trade finance are still paper-based, trade and trade finance will only migrate more and more to the online platform of this “most innovative fintech company” in Asia-Pacific (Global Finance). One could call this paperless system a "beyond paper" innovation.
TRANSACTION VALUES
Based on the Investor Presentation, the published transaction values are as follows:
Pro forma common equity value is approximately $853.6 million.
Proposed enterprise value is approximately $674.1 million.
AGGRESSIVE GROWTH PROSPECTS
While already profitable at $14.8 million EBITDA and $13.2 million net income, Triterras Fintech is aiming to more than double these two performance measures by the end of their next fiscal year. Of its $1.5 trillion total addressable market that is the gap in SME trade finance, it has addressed $3.7 billion (finalized for fiscal 2019) and aims to more than double this, not just by the end of fiscal 2021, but by the end of their next fiscal year, despite COVID-19.
According to Global Trade Review, expansion into South America would help accomplish this:
Koneru adds: “The platform is not limited geographically, but it started out with a focus in Southeast Asia and the surrounding regions. Looking forward, there is a growth opportunity and a lack of funding for SMEs in other areas. We are looking to expand and provide more trade financing options in South America later this year.”
System-wise, the company's Kratos platform started out as just a trade discovery module, before expanding this year into a trade finance module and a risk management module. Later this year, Kratos will expand further into an insurance module and a shipping and logistics module.
Triterras Fintech is the Dominos Pizza of SME trade finance. DP developed its app, then vaulted ahead past the traditional restaurant players. Likewise, the expanding modules of Kratos demonstrate aptly the company's leadership in the field of disrupting trade finance through fintech innovation.
CONCERNS
Much of the revenues of Triterras Fintech is dependent on related party transactions with Rhodium Resources. Both companies are owned by the same people. Rhodium provides Triterras much of the transaction fees and trade finance fees projected in the Investor Presentation.
The binding, definitive merger agreement contains a "rights by any other name" arrangement, in the form of additional shares for initial shareholders of Triterras. These performance earnouts can be issued regardless of the share price, provided that EBITDA targets are met.
CRITICAL THINKING: VALUATION
The contractual enterprise-value-to-EBITDA ratio was 8.0: $674.1 million / $84.3 million EBITDA in 2021.
In comparison, the S&P 500's enterprise-value-to-EBITDA ratio is over 14, a mix of growth stories and value duds.
The contractual enterprise-value-to-earnings ratio was 9.4: $674.1 million / $71.4 million net income in 2021.
In comparison, the S&P 500's P/E ratio is over 27, while the Russell 2000's P/E ratio is over 60.
Northland analyst Mike Grondahl established an $18 price target for the stock.
On the other hand, most SPAC-targeted companies tend to go down after the completion of their business combinations. Buy-and-hold, fundamental institutional investors tend not to buy directly from the arbitrage funds, which is the only way for non-hype SPACs to avoid going down.
For the first six months of the new fiscal period, Triterras generated $23.7 million in revenue, $17.3 million in EBITDA, and $14.2 million in net income. Each of these figures is less than half of their corresponding 2020 estimates contained within the Investor Presentation. It remains to be seen how the company can meet the rest of the 2020 estimates, whether seasonality ought to be considered or not, and whether expansion into South America had been factored into the merger discussions.
Are the projected revenues, EBITDA, and net income for 2020 realistic?
Are the projected revenues, EBITDA, and net income for 2021 realistic?
Are the projected revenues, EBITDA, and net income for 2022 realistic?
Are the projected revenues, EBITDA, and net income for 2023 realistic?
What % of transactions are arm's-length transactions (i.e., not between Triterras and Rhodium)?
Besides quarterly reporting, how much can management really do to meet the $18 price target set by the analyst coverage?
Disclosure: Established a small starter position in NFINW, and may add more if the stock dives - subject to additional DD.
submitted by Torlek1 to SPACs [link] [comments]


2020.10.24 05:15 NietzscheJr "Murder is Bad", and Other True Things: An Introduction to Meta-Ethics!

Introduction

There are many purposes to this post:
  1. To introduce and explain the most popular views in meta-ethics.
  2. To give some common arguments for and against these positions.
  3. To connect some common positions this subreddit holds to the academic terminology
Most of this post is not argumentative! It does contain arguments, but the purpose is not to convince you of any one position. The primary purpose of the non-argumentative sections is to help ground those unfamiliar with Meta-Ethics with the tools necessary to describe their beliefs accurately and in a way that other people will understand. The most might also give you access to new arguments to support your position, or perhaps an argument to support another.
You can get nearly all of the information I've used here on the SEP or the IEP. Some philosophers also allow you to access their papers for free if you go through their personal websites. Some literature reviews are also free. I've linked to free resources where I can. However, some sources are going to be behind a pay wall. If you need some help to get over that barrier join the discord here and ask about it.

What Is Meta-Ethics?

In analytical ethical philosophy, there are three branches: applied ethics, normative ethics, and meta-ethics. In applied ethics, we ask if abortion is wrong? If normative ethics we ask what our duties might be, or whether we even have duties? In meta-ethics we ask what properties do moral propositions even have; can moral propositions even be true or false?
Let's take a quick example: take the proposition "murder is wrong". Is this true? Is it mind independent? Is it the expression of a belief or an attitude? If it is a fact, what sort of fact is it: natural or non-natural? Are those even the only options?
We are going to discuss the answer to these questions, and one's like them, throughout the post.

Realism and Anti-Realism

There has been some debate over how best to taxonomise meta-ethics but I see the primary split as between Moral Realism and Moral Anti-Realism.
Moral Realists minimally claim that moral propositions can be true or false, and some are actually true. By a moral proposition, they mean a proposition of the kind "theft is wrong" or "murder is bad". Moral Realists often commit to more than this, though: some argue these truths and falsities are objective -and by objective I mean not dependent on the attitudes or other beliefs held by an agent- or that moral facts are mind independent (Geoff 2015).
Moral propositions can be simple, like the two examples given above, or more complex like the example: "Sandra should not have lied to her boss" is still a moral proposition!
Moral Anti-Realists reject moral realism. However, what exactly they are rejecting depends on their understanding of realism: they could reject minimal realism or something more substantive (Richard 2016). Let's take another example: the anti-realist denies that "murder is bad" is true.
Other accounts divide the positions differently: Michael Huemer sees the divide between Moral Intuitionists and everyone else (see Huemer's Ethical Intuitionism) while others see the major split occurring between cognitivists and non-cognitivists (see Alexander Miller's Contemporary Meta-Ethics: An Introduction).

Cognitivism and Non-Cognitivism

All moral realists - and Error Theorists - are Moral Cognitivists (van Roojen 2018). Moral Cognitivists say that (i) moral statements express beliefs and (ii) they can be true or false. Moral statements differ slightly from moral propositions - moral statements are moral propositions verbalised.
Conversely, Moral Anti-Realists can be split into broad camps. Non-Cognitivists argue that "moral statements have no substantial truth conditions. Furthermore, according to non-cognitivists, when people utter moral sentences, they are not typically expressing states of mind which are beliefs, or which are cognitive in the way that beliefs are. Rather they are expressing non-cognitive attitudes more similar to desires, approval or disapproval."(Richard 2016). Error Theorists claim that moral propositions are truth-apt – they are able to be true or false - but are never true (Richard 2016).
These are the two top level distinctions: Cognitivism and Realism. Nearly every taxonomy is going to start by talking about realism or about cognitivism. Ours has proved no different. However, I'm going to put cognitivism to the side from now on. It's an important position and this is mostly for the sake of space.

Generalist Arguments for Realism and Some Replies

I understand "generalist arguments" as arguments for these top-level positions: these arguments (typically) work for defending a broad realism or anti-realism. Later we are going to look at arguments for lower-level positions like Moral Naturalism and Error Theory.
I am going to look at two arguments for Realism. I will not argue that these are successful. I take the Arguments for Anti-Realism, at the top level, to be refutations of Arguments for Realism.
  1. Moral Realism as the Default Position
  2. Argument from Epistemic Facts (Companions in Guilt Arguments)
The first argument often had between Realists and Anti-Realists is over who holds the default position. More precisely: who has the burden of proof?
The most common position has been that Anti-Realism has that burden. Jonathan Dancy, David McNaughton and David Brink all posit that people "begin as (tacit) cognitivists and realists about ethics... [and therefore] Moral Realism is our starting point." (Brink 1989) This view is motivated by several considerations: one is intuition and one is the explanatory power. Why does it seem that moral propositions held sincerely by agents seems to motivate them? Well, because they are beliefs and judgements! Why do we talk about morals as though they are real and refer to them as beliefs in everyday conversation? Well, because they are! I don't want this argument to over reach: the point is merely that the default position is a Moral Realism and that it is a position that one needs to be motivated away from. This isn't a position held just by Realists: John Mackie accepts that his view is unintuitive (Mackie 1977). He believes he has sufficient arguments to move people away from realism.
There are replies to this argument. The SEP has twin articles on this. One on intuitions and the other on explanatory power.
The second argument, or set of arguments, made by realists are companion in guilt arguments. These arguments say that if we reject a moral realism, we have to reject realism about lots of other things we typically accept (and accept with good reason). Therefore, we ought not to reject realism. Typical companions are epistemology, mathematics, the mind and sometimes philosophy itself; to reject facts about these is a tremendous bullet to bite that is both massively counter intuitive and has to run the gauntlet of rejecting many good arguments.
Terence Cuneo gives a version of such an argument in The Normative Web (2007). He gives his 'core' argument as:
  1. If moral facts do not exist, then epistemic facts do not exist.
  2. Epistemic facts exist.
  3. So moral facts exist.
  4. If moral facts exist, then moral realism is true.
  5. So moral realism is true.
Cuneo sees his first premise as the most crucial (but defends premise 2 as well). The thrust of Cuneo's argument is that the epistemic facts have all the features that anti-realists think are problematic for moral facts. Cuneo defines epistemic facts as "facts to the effect that something has some such property as being justified or irrational or insightful or a case of knowledge." (Lenman 2008) He thinks there is a parity, for example, between the intrinsic motivation of moral reasons and epistemic reasons. Similarly, he thinks epistemic facts face the same apparent intractability of disagreement that morality supposedly faces. James Lenman's review is an excellent primer for Cuneo (2008).
For more of these arguments, see Russ Shafer-Landau's Moral Realism: A Defence (2003). This review is also a good primer (Lillehammer 2003). We will continue to use Cuneo's argument as a surrogate for all Companions-in-Guilt arguments.
The Anti-Realist has two options: argue against premise 1 or argue against premise 2. Rejecting premise 1 seems the most likely: claim that epistemic facts and moral facts are sufficiently different. Perhaps, for example, that moral facts supervene in a way that epistemic facts don't. However, some people take on the freakish task of denying 2. Bart Streumer's Unbelievable Errors: An Error Theory about All Normative Judgements takes on the self-admittedly insane position that there are no normative truths (Streumer 2017). Again, we have a review from Notre Dame by none other than Koons (Koons 2017). Streumer seems to think that this position is functionally impossible to hold, but none the less plausibly true. He has a forthcoming paper Why We Really Cannot Believe the Error Theory which builds upon this claim (Streumer 2013 & Streumer forthcoming).
What conclusions can we draw from this? It seems like there is debate over whether moral realism is in fact intuitive, despite the common answer being that it is the default position. I also introduced us to a species of argument. These arguments seem good, at least to me, and the most likely premise to attack is that these companions are no companions at all! Otherwise, we see forced into the unenviable position of rejecting all normativity.

Moral Anti-Realism: Error Theory

Moral Error Theory is a view that should be fairly easy for this community to understand: it is the same as the view that atheists take towards the existence of god, or the view most people take towards astrology. The moral error theorist doesn't believe in morals: no obligations, no values, virtue, or permissibility. Sometimes this is understood by saying that all moral claims are false, or that we systematically make false claims when talking about morality. Error Theory is both cognitivist and anti-realist.
This position is most famously held by J. L. Mackie, who 'invented' error theory with Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong (1977).
Let's have a look at the claim: "What Hitler did was morally wrong." The Error Theorist denies this. However, they also deny "What Hitler did was morally right." They deny any kind of moral claim about the goodness, wrongness, badness, rightness or permissibility of a person or action. We still allow the Error Theorist to hate the Nazis and to hate Hitler - they can still oppose Hitler. But they cannot claim to do so because of moral judgments (Joyce 2015).
Mackie provides two famous arguments for Error Theory:
  1. Argument from Moral Queerness
  2. Argument from Moral Disagreement
We have seen claims like the Argument from Moral Queerness already, so we will begin with that. This, explicitly, is an argument that Cuneo was rebelling against. The Argument from Moral Queerness makes two claims: moral facts, if they existed, consist of weird properties. These weird properties, the second claim says, would have to be understood through a weird mechanism. Put differently: "(A) that morality is centrally committed to some thesis X, and (B) that X is bizarre, ontologically profligate, or just too far-fetched to be taken seriously..." (Joyce 2016).
I think we have good reasons to think that the Argument from Moral Queerness is not very effective. Most arguments we are going to discuss argue themselves to be in the position of defending perfectly normal or intuitive views. We might see Queerness in Plato's views, or even in some non-naturalisms. We do not see it uniformly.
The second argument is the Argument from Moral Disagreement. This is an argument that appears frequently on the subreddit despite being not very good. This argument goes that there is widespread disagreement on what our morals are and ought to be. This disagreement, unlike most disagreement, is intractable. Take two cultures with two different values. The realist will claim that they have different access and therefore come to form different beliefs. Some of these beliefs are false. Mackie argues it just makes more sense to say their moral beliefs result from their cultural and anthropological heritage. They do not have different access; they just have different (never true) beliefs.
The Argument from Moral Disagreement has been criticised heavily. There are three strands of criticism: (1) that the disagreement part of moral disagreement is heavily exaggerated. If we polled people what would they say their morals comprise? Presumably that theft is often bad, as is murder. They might emphasize the family; on happiness and on fairness. If we take these to be moral claims, then it seems there is widespread agreement! (2) Disagreement doesn't seem to have weight on the truth of the matter. If you lacked the tools to calculate the shape of the Earth, but I had them, we would not conclude that the shape of the Earth is unknowable or nonsense. Finally, (3) cultures do not seem to have equal epistemic access. As cultures progress their values align; why would we think that Mackie is right in his assessment that his view is more parsimonious when we seem to experience moral progress with increased epistemic access?
Moral Error Theory is not a particularly popular position. The arguments for it have come under heavy criticism. That said it remains an important position in the history of meta ethical philosophy. Newer types - updated versions of Mackie's original formation - might be able to deal with these criticisms better.

Moral Anti-Realism: Non-Cognitivism & Emotivism

Earlier I introduced both Cognitivism and Non-Cognitivism. In this section, I will explain where arguments seen elsewhere fit into Non-Cognitivism, and then talk about a popular brand of Non-Cognitivism: Emotivism.
As a reminder: Non-Cognitivism is the view that that moral statements "moral statements have no substantial truth conditions. Furthermore, according to non-cognitivists, when people utter moral sentences they are not typically expressing states of mind which are beliefs or which are cognitive in the way that beliefs are. Rather they are expressing non-cognitive attitudes more similar to desires, approval or disapproval." (Richard 2016).
Mark van Roojen (2018) gives two more precise theses:
  1. Semantic Non-Factualism: moral statements do not express propositions or do not have substantial truth conditions
  2. Psychological Non-Cognitivism: the states of mind expressed by moral statements are not beliefs or other cognitive mental states.
van Roojen says that most Non-Cognitivists accept both theses. We have already seen two arguments that would motivate Non-Cognitivism because the two arguments for Error Theory can be applied here. Later we will see Moore's Open Question Argument. I will argue the Moral Naturalist as a response but if you find that response lacking then you have further motivation towards Non-Naturalism or Non-Cognitivism (rather than there being non-natural properties the Non-Cognitivist could conclude there are no moral properties at all.)
A. J. Ayer gives a general argument for Non-Cognitivism:
  1. The Verification Principle: a synthetic proposition (Any proposition whose truth depends on the relationship between the content of the proposition and the world is labelled Synthetic) is truth apt only if it is empirically verifiable. All meaningful propositions are analytic (true by definition) or are empirically verifiable.
  2. We cannot translate ethical statements into statements of empirical fact, no natural reduction of ethical concepts is possible. So, they are not empirically verifiable.
  3. Ethical statements are synthetic, not analytic.
  4. Non-Cognitivism: Therefore, ethical statements are not literally meaningful, and can be neither true nor false. (Ayer 1996) (Markovits 2009)
As we will see later some people deny 1, 2, and 3. I won't say much more in this because we will encounter these premises (and defences thereof) later!
There are many types of Non-Cognitivism but we are going to focus on one popular type: Emotivism.
Emotivists say that moral judgements are emotional expressions of one's approval or disapproval of some action or person. For example, when I say "Murder is bad" what I mean is that I am angry at murder or murder makes me go "eww". There are very famous emotivist texts: A. J. Ayer's Language, Truth and Logic (1936) and Charles Stevenson's Ethics and Language (1945). The SEP functions offer two biographical primers. Here's Ayer's link and here's Stevenson's link.
The Emotivist then adds that they think that ethics is best explained as emotions. Let's examine the supposed intractability of ethical disagreement. Do we not think this is the same for emotional expressions? The Emotivist says yes, and then would run through other qualities.
In this section, I have described Non-Cognitivism and one sort of Non-cognitivism. We have sparce on the detail of the criticisms. We will see a criticism of premise 2 with our next position: Moral Naturalism!

Moral Realism: Moral Naturalism

Moral Naturalism is a Moral Realism. Broadly, a moral naturalist thinks that morality can be explained within a naturalist framework. In this section I'm going to introduce a broad moral naturalism before talking briefly about Neo-Aristotelean Naturalism. In the following sections, I will talk about the two most common arguments. against Moral Naturalism in two mini-sections.
Moral Naturalists are often taken to be making three claims:
  1. Metaphysical Naturalism: Moral Facts are natural facts where natural facts are those kinds of facts that scientists study.
  2. Epistemic Naturalism: We come to know moral facts the same way we come to know other natural facts.
  3. Analytic Naturalism: Our moral claims are synonymous with certain claims in the natural sciences. (Lutz & Lenman 2018)
3 is unnecessary and can be in contrast with 2. The central claim is Metaphysical Naturalism.
In a more layman friendly way: Moral Naturalists think that (1) moral facts exist and (2) moral properties are reducible to natural properties.
There are a few reasons to like Moral Naturalism. The first is that it fits nicely into two frameworks with broad support. If one was compelled by some arguments from realism, and was compelled by naturalism, then Moral Naturalism seems like a natural fit. It also seems to make sense of some of the criticisms we've seen of realism already: if moral properties are natural properties we have no reason to think they are queer, for example. The second is that Moral Naturalism seems to enjoy a lot of support by contrast. We've seen the arguments for Non-Cognitivism and some for Anti-Realism. For many, these arguments fail. As we will see later, Non-Naturalism also has problems. This is not to say that Moral Naturalism has no counter-arguments, but it does seem to enjoy the status of being the least immediately problematic position (Lutz & Lenman 2018).
There are three popular accounts of Moral Naturalism: Neo-Aristotelian, Cornell Realism and Moral Functionalism. For an example of a Moral Functionalism, see Frank Jackson's From Metaphysics to Ethics: A Defence of Conceptual Analysis (Jackson 1998) and Stephen Finlay's Confusing Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language (Finlay 2014). For an example of Cornell Realism, see Richard Boyd's How to Be a Moral Realist (Boyd 1988), David Brink's Externalist Moral Realism (1986), Railton's Moral Realism (1986), and Nicholas Sturgeon's Moral Explanations (1985). The account I will focus on, Neo-Aristotelianism, has many contemporary proponents: Foot, Hursthouse, Nussbuam, MacIntyre and Thomson are all examples. I will focus on Hursthouse's:
Essential to Aristotle is that all things have a telos; or nature. Let's use the most common example in ethical philosophy. What is it that makes a knife a good knife? Well, its ability to cut cleanly and its sharpness. A bad knife is a knife that is bad at cutting. Aristotle thinks we can expand this account to humans: what makes a good human? Aristotle thinks a good human is one that performs their function (Richard 2018) and that function is dictated by our telos, or nature (Richard 2018 & Lutz & Lenman 2018)
Hursthouse thinks there are (at least) 4 parts of the human telos:
  1. Survival
  2. Reproduction
  3. Characteristic and Systematic Enjoyment & Freedom from Pain
  4. The Good Functioning of the Social Group (Hursthouse 1999)
Hursthouse thinks that evaluating humans qua their natural kind is different from evaluating leopards, or elephants of bees. Hursthouse writes:
But in virtue of our rationality—our free will if you like—we are different. Apart from obvious physical constraints and possible psychological constraints, there is no knowing what we can do from what we do do, because we can assess what we do do and at least try to change it. Suppose that, as far as human ethology goes, human beings do have a ‘characteristic’ way of going in for the sustained protection and nurturing of their young—the biological mothers of the offspring do it. Thereby human beings resemble a large number of other species in which (to coin a phrase) stepfatherly nature bears much harder on the females than it does on the males. With those other species, this is (unless we are mad enough to interfere) necessarily so, but with us it is not, and it has been one of the most illuminating aspects of feminism that it has made us see this. It is in the nature of things—in the nature or ‘essence’ of cheetahs and thereby of female cheetahs—that, speaking anthropocentrically, female cheetahs are bound to have a rotten life in comparison with male cheetahs. Part of what feminists are after, and right about, when they deny ‘essentialism’, is that, for us, it is not in our nature or essence that female human beings are bound to do whatever they have, so far, done. We can do otherwise. Our concepts of ‘a good human being’ and ‘living well, as a human being’ are far from being completely constrained by what members and biologically specialized members of our species actually, or, at the moment, typically, do; we have room for the idea that we might be able to be and to live better. (Hursthouse 1999 p.222)
Our rationality, which is taken as characteristically human, can alter the basic naturalist structure into a more complex naturalist structure.
Our next two sections are going to be Hume's Guillotine and Moore's Open Question. These famous arguments each claim to defeat Moral Naturalism. I am giving them a special amount of attention because Moral Naturalism is a widely held view, and these arguments are often taken as evidence for other views.

Against Moral Naturalism: The Is-Ought Gap

David Hume argued that ethicists often make claims about what is the case and wrongly infer from those what ought to be the case (Hume 1739). There is a jump in logic, and in value, going from a state about what the world is like, or what is the case, and inferring from that what we ought to do. There is, then, a category error in jumping from a descriptive state to an evaluative fact.
The argument goes that the moral naturalist has jumped from what the natural facts are to what the moral facts are. I don't think this criticism is particularly good and I'm going to give two very quick responses:
  1. Deny the Category Error
  2. Deny the Gap
Alistar MacIntryre, in After Virtue, argues for the telos account we've seen above in Hursthouse and Aristotle (MacIntyre 1981). He sees the Is-Ought Gap as posing no real problem:

  1. If there exists a human telos, then a good human can exist
  2. There exists a human telos.
  3. A good human can exist.
The goodness of any person is measured against that telos. It seems no more fallacious to say what a good human is than it is fallacious to say that a good knife should cut or a good TV needs to be able to turn on. We might even think we don't need to introduce "oughts" at all here.
Philippa Foot denies the gap via an analogy with rudeness. Foot thinks that "rude" is evaluative. But she thinks it can be derived from a description: that x causes offence by indicating a lack of respect. If that definition is true, can one deny that it is rude? If she is correct and the answer is no then one has derived an ought from an is! (Foot 1958 & IEP)
Both counters have been countered and developed to deal with those counters. Right now, I only want to introduce them. The second objection is Moore's Open Question.

Against Moral Naturalism: Moore's Open Question

Moore's Open Question goes as follows:
If X is analytically equivalent to the good, then the question "Is it true that X is good?" is closed and therefore silly or meaningless.
  1. The question "Is it true that X is good?" is an open not silly or meaningless since it is an open question.
  2. X is not analytically equivalent to the good.
Let's illustrate with Socrates and his morality. Let's say that Socrates is a man and all men are mortal. Given that, it seems a meaningless question to ask "I know Socrates is a man and all men are mortal, but is Socrates immortal?" Moore proposes that since all questions about moral goodness are open, then moral goodness cannot be reduced to an analytical equivalent (which is what moral naturalists claim to be doing) (Moore 1903).
While Moore uses this to motivate a Non-Naturalism, the Open Question also supports a Non-Cognitivism.
For a brief while, it seemed as though Moore had ruined moral philosophy. However, I want to give two reasons why we should reject Moore's conclusions:
  1. The Open Question Overreaches
  2. The Open Question Isn't Open
Michael Smith argued that the Open Question's true would mean that modern philosophy is scuppered (Smith 1994). Smith thinks that if our metric is to ask if the question is obviously closed then it seems like the only things we could ever prove are propositions of the same triviality as "all bachelors are unmarried, John is a bachelor, and therefore John is unmarried." Smith thinks that if we allow for analytic truths to be non-obvious, then the appearance of openness is insiginifcant.
The second argument is put forward by Finlay: Finlay argues that the Open Question isn't open at all. Instead, it only appears open (Finlay 2014). If goodness can be analysed, the question is going to appear open for all answers that aren't correct (so an infinity of answers, minus one) and it might even appear (as we have seen with Smith) to be an open question even if it is actually closed. Finlay continues that the only way to know if X is good is to analyze it, and not to ask about how the question feels.
I see both of these are successful. I find Finlay particularly successful. However, you might not. Moore himself argued for our next view: Moral Non-Naturalism.

Moral Realism: Moral Non-Naturalism

In this section, my goal is to give a terribly broad definition of Non-Naturalism before analysising Moore's specific account of Non-Naturalism. I will not highlight any criticisms because I think the motivation for Moore is the success of the Open Question. How much you like Moore's account will depend on how strong you take previous arguments in this post to be.
If Moral Naturalism can be understood as the claim that moral facts are natural facts understandable and discoverable through the natural sciences, then Moral Non-Naturalism is the claim that moral philosophy is autonomous from the natural sciences (Ridge 2019). Giving a more precise definition is problematic since non-naturalism covers a wide array of views. Some are primarily epistemology, some metaphysical.
I am going to examine G.E Moore's account of Moral Non-Naturalism. Moore's account has two claims:
  1. Moral Realism
  2. Moral Facts are sui generis (sui generis just means "Of its own kind" so moral facts are in a class of their own) (Moore 1903).
As I said earlier, Moore's position seems motivated by two things: the success of moral realism and the failure of moral naturalism (Hurka 2015). If you agree on both counts, then Moore is likely someone who you think has a good position.

Common Meta-Ethical Views in the Subreddit

That's the main body of work done. The last thing to do is to run through three positions that we often encounter in the subreddit. I am going to run through
  1. Divine Command Theory
  2. Moral Non-Objectivism/Subjectivism
  3. Moral Relativism
I am going to explain these positions within the context of the positions we have already discovered.

Common View #1: Divine Command Theory

Divine Command Theory is the view that morality depends on God, and that our moral obligations are to follow God's Commands. Divine Command Theory has enjoyed a long history of support. In fact, some philosophers think that without God we have to give up on moral oughts and instead move onto moral virtue (Anscombe 1958).
There are different versions of Divine Command Theory, but I take most to say something along Edward Wierenga's lines:
  1. God determines what is moral
  2. 2. Moral obligations are derived from God's Commands
I understand Divine Command Theory to be a kind of Moral Non-Naturalism. It is therefore a Moral Realism that holds that moral facts are not reducible to natural facts. One might call Divine Command Theory a Moral Supernaturalism.
There are some advantages to Divine Command Theory, but those advantages are not unique to it over any other realisms - although some theorists claim that Divine Command Theory is the only way to make sense of why we ought to do the good which is something they claim that naturalism suffers in doing. I want to put the motivations to one side for this post. Instead, I want to talk briefly about the Euthyphro Dilemma.
The Euthyphro Dilemma asks “Does God command this action because it is morally right, or is it morally right because God commands it?” If it is the first, it must worry us that there is a good independent of God and God merely recognises that God. Having a good external to God poses problems for most monotheisms. The second horn leaves open the possibility that cruelty could be morally right if God commanded it.
I think the Divine Command Theorist has some good responses: they can bite the bullet and admit that God could command cruelty (but never would) or they can insist on a telos. The IEP entry on this is excellent. Link here.

Common View #2: Moral Relativism/Moral Subjectivism

These make sense to talk about together in how we understand the terms and then come apart with how we motivate them. In this section, I'll define both and distinguish them from a non-cognitivism. I want to end by saying Moral Subjectivism is a confusing, and perhaps necessarily confused, discussion.
Moral Relativism claims that moral claims are indexical: that any moral truth claim requires that you relativize it to a group or individual. The index can change from individual to group (think mafia) to culture, to perhaps something larger. This relativism is minimally realist: moral propositions are truth apt. It might even be the case that they are mind-independent. Joyce offers a comparison to tallness. Michael Jordan' is not made tall by thinking that Michael Jordan is tall, but his tallness is still relative to the culture he exists in. (Joyce 2016)
Moral Subjectivism, contrasted to relativism, is mind dependent. These two views are distinct but not mutually exclusive. Joyce talks about the difficulty of extracting meaning from "mind-(in) dependent" used as a coarse grain term. (Joyce 2016) Moral Subjectivism seems to be a moral realism because it does posit moral facts, and it seems to be a cognitivism. Most Subjectivists, even on this subreddit, don't seem to think moral propositions report an attitude: they seem to think they report a belief.
But this isn't so clear cut: some people take subjectivism to be a non-cognitivism. I think this is a view we see on the sub. It needn't be that way though.
There are two points to take from Joyce:
  1. So many debates in philosophy revolve around objectivity versus subjectivity that one may be forgiven for assuming that someone somewhere understands this distinction. Joyce is right in saying that if you ask 10 people what they give different accounts, and in fact the definition I've given above suffers from this problem.
  2. That said, subjectivism needn't be a "silly" position: subjectivity needn't be so as unsophisticated that it can't make sense of moral progress or disagreement. It needn't be analogous to taste.
So, while relativism seems fairly easy to understand, moral subjectivism seems comparatively difficult. My advice here is to give a full account of moral subjectivism when you talk about it!

Concluding

That is all! There are a few positions missing. For people who are familiar with the topic, you’ll notice that Constructivism is strangely absent. If this post is successful, I might talk about Constructivism. I would also like to talk about Moral Intuitionism. There are also arguments I would have loved to include: I want to talk about Evolutionary Debunking Arguments, but I’m saving that for a post where I defend a Moral Naturalism.
This isn’t every position that you’re going to see in meta-ethics, nor is it a complete account of the positions we have seen. What it should be, however, is a rapid-fire introduction to meta-ethics. I hope that this will help interested parties come to understand their own views a little better, and come to understand the views of others a little better. Hopefully, it also makes the case that none of these positions are ever trivially true or false–argumentation, often good argumentation, surrounds these positions.
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2020.10.24 05:05 jojeolmi Self help/non-fiction books that deal with overcoming depression and not loving yourself

My boyfriend has been going through a very low point in his life. He lost his job, dealing with quarantine and a long distance relationship, and lost a lot of money in the stock market. He’s normally very loving, ambitious and passionate but has given up the past month or so and just does the bare minimum to get through each day. It’s affecting his relationships with his family, friends, and me. I know he definitely still loves me and his friends, but depression is making it very hard to survive the day to day without withdrawing from the world and not taking care of his relationships.
He’s very into personal development and non-fiction books, and is also into understanding human psychology and marketing related things. Some examples of books he’s loved were books by Simon Sinek, The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck by Mark Manson, and How to Make Friends and Influence People by Dale Carnegie.
I plan on buying him some books that might help him on top of trying to convince him to get some therapy. Thanks in advance!
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